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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Public opinion
values, attitudes of people
a persons basic orientations to politics
political ideology
set of beliefs and values that form a general philosophy
specific opinion about a particular issue or event
equality of opportunity
assume all individuals be allowed to seek personal success
political socialization
learning underlying beliefs and values of political system
agencies of socialization
1) families, 2) schools, help shape basic political beliefs
social reform, intervention in economy
large government is bad, military
market place of ideas
interplay of opinions and views with competition for peoples support
opinion leaders
those whom other citizens turn to for political info
Agenda Setting
power of media to bring public attention to issues
power of media to influence how events are interpretted
media coverage affects public perception
media prediction that particular candidate wil do better in the future
Adversarial Journalism
media adopting a hostile posture toward government
public opinion polls
scientific instruments for measuring public opinion
small group selected to represent entire population
probability sampling
select representation where every individual has equal probability
random digit dialing
random calling, avoiding bias
selection bias
polling error, not representative of population
measurement error
failure to identify true distribution of opinion
push polling
polling technique where questions are designed to shape answers
salient issues
stand out issues
bandwagon effect
results or opinions actually change outcome
suffrage (also called franchise)
the right to vote
percentage of eligible voters who actually vote
poll taxes
rendered unconstitutional in 1966
moter voter bill
voters register by mail when renewing drivers license
majority system
type of system where candidate must win majority in relevant district
plurality system
just need to receive the most votes
proportional representation
awarded seats based on percentages
appointment of voters in districts
racial gerrymandering
redrawing congressional boundry to eliminate majority
benign gerrymandering
attempts to redraw districts to represent only disadvantaged
electoral college
group of 'electors' who formally select president of the U.S.
straight party vote
practice of casting ballots for candidates only in one party
australian ballot
represents names for given office, (split ticket)
split ticket
casting ballots for at least two different political parties
practice of referring a measure proposed by legislature
allows citizens to propose new laws and submit them for approval
procedure to allow voters opportunity to remove state officials
partisan loyalty, issue concern, candidate
3 major issues at the polls
prospective voting
voting based on imagined future performance of candidate
retrospective voting
voting based on past performance of a candidate
small direct mail contribution, large independant expenditures, candidate resources, political action committees, soft money
5 sources of candidate funds
Political Action Committees
private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns
soft money
money contributed directly to political parties for voter registration and organization
527 Committees
nonprofit independant groups that receive and disburse funds
madisonian principle that all interests are free to compete for influence
interest groups
organized around shared belief or mutual concern (like AMA or Bar association)
membership association
members actually play substantial role
staff organization
professional staff conducts most of groups activities
social benefits
selective benefits of group members (like networking)
purposive benefits
selective benefits that emphasize purpose of the group (like religious groups)
collective goods
benefits sought by groups that are broadly available, not denied to nonmembers (veterans benefits)
free riders
those who enjoy collective goods but didn't participate in aquisition
expansion of role of gov. coming of age of 'new politics,' revival of grassroots conservatism
3 reasons for growth of interest groups
New politics
1960s-1970s professionals, civil rights and anti war
strategy to influence legislation (from sitting out in a lobby)
iron triangle
made up of: congressional committee, administrative agency, supportive group
issue network
loose network of elected leaders, public officials, activists
filing suit directy, financing suits, file companion brief
3 ways interest groups use court system
going public
attempts to mobilize widest opinion
grassroots lobbying
mobilized membership to contact government individually
astroturf lobbying
negative term to describe group directed exaggerated lobbying