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100 Cards in this Set

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state
Political unit w/ gov’t, population, territory, & sovereignty
sovereignty
Control over political system and internal affairs (protect borders, send/receive diplomats)
capitalism
means of production (mines, factories, farms) are owned by private persons
direct (pure) democracy
the people get to participate directly in the government(ex. Greek city-states, new England colonies)
Representative democracy
indirect democracypeople directly elect representatives to run government
Pluralism
Interest groups rule;
Political decisions are made by bargains and compromises.
Elitism
U.S. is governed by the wealthy, for the wealthy

Capitalism --> unequal wealth --> class system
Hyperpluralism
Increased pressure from interest groups leads to ineffective public policy as politicians try to please every interest group.
Federalists
Those who approved the adoption of the Constitution
Polyarchy
Power belongs to the elites/leaders within the interst groups
Oligarchy
small group of people who rule; in time, every interest group tends toward oligarchy, neglects common interests of interest group
Political Socialization
The process of teaching citizens the proper info and attitudes about political culture (@ community level & individual level)

(Family, School, Peer Groups, Media)
Political Ideology
systematic set of attitudes that we develop and use to justify our view of the political world
Ethnocentrism
belief that one's culture is superior to all other cultures.
Political Culture
Our psychological orientation towards our government, our institutions, our leaders, and our fellow citizens.

Made up of (symbols, shared beliefs, structure of government, etc.)
Lobbying
Interest groups try to influence legislatures to vote for their bills; educate and provide info to legislatures
Electioneering
interest groups try to elect supporters and oust opposers
Public Relations (I.G. Tactic)
Interest groups advertise their views in order to gain the public favor, therefore politicians are less likely to vote against it in order to avoid angering the masses.
Grass Roots Pressure
Massive letter/email launched by interest groups in order to create the image that there are thousands of people concerned about an issue.
Litigation
If interest groups can't get what they want through other tactics, they use lawsuits (Amicus Curiae &/or class action lawsuits)
Amicus Curiae
"Friend of the court" lawsuit where i.g.s not directly involved in case but concerned about the outcome can file a brief if they have the permission of one of the litigants.
Brief
Detailed argument in an amicus curiae case that is used to try to persuade Supreme Court members how to vote.
Class Action Lawsuit
Lawsuit filed by a group of people who have been aggrieved; makes a greater impact.
Statistical Normality
Certain traits among people (including political ideology) are normally distributed (bell-curve, normal curve)
Liberal
Discontent with status quo; seeks progressive change

(ex. Michael Dukakis, Kerry, Walter Mondale)
Conservative
Favors status quo; places emphasis on fiscal responsibility
Reactionary
Someone who wants to change bacak the clock to when they were on top; favors force; extreme right

(KKK, American Nazi Party, Sean Hannity)
Radical
Wants fundamental change NOW; willing to use force/violence; extreme left

(ex. communists, PLO)
Selective Perception
We watch, retain, and receive what we want to see, regardless of media slant/bias.
Cooptation
Tactic of elitists where they take the leader of the revolters and bring him/her on board to their side, robbing the opposing group of strong leadership resources.
Tokenism
Elitist tactic where they patronize the revolters in order to make it look like changes are being made

(starting commissions/agencies)
Jus Soli
Acquiring U.S. citizenship by being born in the U.S. regardless of parents' nationality
(made possible by 14th amendment)
Jus Sanguinis
U.S. citizenship acquired by being born to U.S. citizens, regardless of location of birth
Naturalization
Rules by which someone born in another nation may become a citizen
(Rules are established by Congress)
Charles A. Beard
Wrote "An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution"

- Constitution founded by wealthy men with a lot to gain
C. Wright Mills
Wrote "The Power Elite"

- "U.S is run by interlocking directorate of top government, military, and corporate officials"

- corporations are the real source of power
Floyd Hunter
Wrote "The Regional City"

- Power is in the form of a pyramid
- 40 rich white men run the city, civic/elected officials are just window dressing.
15th amendment
Black men have the right to vote
17th amendment
Direct election of U.S. senators
19th amendment
women's suffrage
26th amendment
18 year olds have the right to vote
Hard money
Source of money can be traced back to donor
Soft Money
Campaign donations that are unregulated by federal state laws; used to evade contribution limits.
Anarchy
Total lack of government, chaos, absence of rules & regulations
Aristotle
"Man is by nature a political animal. He is destined to live in a state. Only by living in this state can man survive."
Harold Lasswll
"Politics is who gets what, when and how"

"Who" is the people who rule
John Locke
"Government has obligation to protect liberty" -- Social Contract
Public Opinion
The whole of individual beliefs or attitudes shared by some portion of the adult population
Private Opinion becomes public opinion when...
opinion is publicly expressed
and
concerns public issues
Consensus
general agreement among citizens on an issue
Sampling error
difference between sample results and true results

(ex. phone bias; likely vs. eligible voters, etc.)
Push Poll
respondents are given misleading info in order to sway their answer.
Thomas Hobbes
"Before there was government, we all lived in a state of nature; life was solitary, poor, nasty, and brutish."

"Man has one inherent fear: violent death"
Alexis de Tocqueville
"Americans of all ages, conditions, backgrounds, are constantly forming associations [interest groups]"
Interest Group
Group of people who have shared <b>attitudes</b> and are organized to influence public policy
James Madison (Re-read The Federalist #51!!!!)
Wrote "The Federalist #51"

"The seeds of faction are sown in the nature of mankind"

U.S. controls factions through federalist republic.
Most factions are started over the unequal distribution of property.
David Truman
"Americans everywhere can be found in interest groups; most important groups stem from division of labor in society; from time to time there will be disequilibrium; the role of government is to establish and maintin equilibrium among interest groups.
Max Farrand
Offered rebuttal to Charles A. Beard's "Wealthy Framers" theory:

Constitution is a bundle of compromises (bicameral legislation, 3/5ths compromise, etc.)
Robert Dahl
Rebuttal to Hunters "Interlocking Directorate of Elites" Theory:

Civic leaders, not the elites, are at the center of concentric circles of power
Political Action Committees
Established to provide money to political parties after Corrupt Practices act made it illegal for people to have to donate money to political parties as a condition of employment; donation amount limited by the Campaign Reform Act of 1974; PACs got around it by renaming/reorganizing themselves.
Bundling
Practice of adding together maximum individual campaign contributions to increase their impact on the candidate.
Gender Gap
The difference between the % of women who voted for a candidate vs. the % of men who voted for a candidate

- women favor democrats (social welfare, environmental issues, majority rights, against capital punishments)

term came into use during 1980s
Functions of the Media
1. Entertainment
2. Reporting the news
3. Identifying public problems
4. Socializing new generations
5. Providing a political forum
6. Making Profits
Spin Doctor
press advisor of candidate, tries to convince journalists of truth about certain events
Political Party
Gorup of people who organize to win elections, operate government, and determine public policy
Public Policy
government's reaction (or lack thereof) to private or social problems
Socialize conflict
Conflict expansions, desire for redrawing of lines; loser's reaction to fight, enlists secondary combatants to help;
Privatize Conflict
Conflict contraction; winner's attempt to dissuade the loser from calling upon secondary combatants (socialization); winners have no incentive to draw dividing lines
Authority
The right to command/exact obedience;
Intrapersonal relation in which one person looks upon another
Legitimacy
People accepting authority as correct, right, or appropriate (jurisdiction of authority figures);
U.S. is legit because it follows procedures established by laws, customs.
Robert Lineberry
KU Professor who developed theory of hyperpluralism; overabundance of interest groups leads to ineffective public policy making.
Murray Edelman
Wrote 'Symbolic Uses of Power'
"if you're going to win in U.S politics, you have to tip the balance towards your side, take a specific issue and turn it into a general issue."
E.E. Schattschneider
Wrote 'Semi-Sovereign People'

"Politics is like a fight; consists of two components, the fighters and the crowd; the crowd determines who wins or loses."
Karl Witfogel
"Hydrolic theory"
- geography of a nation plays a vital role in its political makeup
David McClelland
"The Achieving Society" Theory
- The way we are taught as children determines how highly our societies achieve
- Western stories: main character always wins
Fredrick Jackson Turner
"Frontier Thesis"
- Expansion of frontier had a levelizing/democratizing effect
- Provdided a safety value for political discontent
- Western states have been historically more progressive.
Candy Lightener
Founder of M.A.D.D.
Margaret Mead
Anthropologist - "Swaddling Theory"
- Those who live in authoritative societies (Soviet Nations) tend to swaddle their babies longer, perhaps this contributes to the psychological need of the people to be controlled.
Anti-Federalist
Opposed Constitution; favored strong central government
Australian Ballot
Secret ballot prepared, distributed, and tabulated by government officials at public expense. All states use it instead of open, public ballot.
Caucus
Closed meeting of party members to select party candidates or decide on policy
Coattail Effect
Influence of popular candidate on the electoral success of other candidates on the same party ticket; increased by party-column ballot (which encourages straight ticket voting)
Electoral College
A group of people selected by the voters in each state (and D.C.) who officially elect the president and vice president.
Grandfather Clause
Restricted voting to those who could prove that their grandfathers had voted before 1867. Tactic used by southern states to prevent blacks from voting.
Generational Effect
Long lasting effect of events of a particular time period on the political opinions or preferences of those who came of political age at the time.
Hatch Act
Act designed to control political influence buying by restricting politcal activities of government employees, prohibiting political groups from spending any more than $3million in any campaign; individual contributions to $5,000.
Passed in 1939.
Indiana Ballot
Party-Column Ballot

Form of general election ballot in which candidates for elective ofices are arranged in columns under their respective party labels and symbols

Emphasizes voting for party rather than office or individual
Poll Tax
Special tax that must be paid as a qualification for voting.

Outlawed for national elections by 24th amendment; declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court in 1966.
Plurality
Total votes cast for a candidate who receives more votes than any other candidate; not necessarily a majority.

Most national, state, and local electoral laws provide for winning elections by plurality vote.
Indirect Technique
Technique used by interest groups that uses third parties (constituents, primarily) to influence legislation
Massachusetts Ballot
Office Block Ballot
Form of general election ballot in which candidates for elective office are grouped together under the title of each office.
Emphasizes voting for candidate and/or office, not party.
Patronage
Rewarding faithful party workers and followers with government employment and contracts
Party Platform
Document drawn up by platform committee at each national convention
Outlines policies, positions, and principles of party.
Mass Media
Channels of communication with mass audiences
Ticket Splitting
voting for candidates of two or more parties for different offices

(Example: voting [r] for presidential candidate and voting [d] for congressional candidate)
Sound Bite
Brief, memorable comment that can easily fit into news broadcasts
Winner-Take-All
General Ticket System
Whichever candidate wins plurality of votes for a state gets all of that state's electoral votes.
Voter Turnout
Percentage of citizens taking part in the election process; the number of eligible voters that actually turn out on election day.
White Primary
state primary election that restricts voting to whites only; outlawed in 1944 by Supreme Court
David Easton
"politics is the authoritative allocation of values"