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97 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Authoritarian Government
form of gov't in which leaders, though they admit to no limits on their powers, are effectively limited by other centers of power in the society
Authority
The recognized right of an ind. or institution to exercise power
Autocracy
A form of govt in which absolute control rests with a single person
Bureaucratic Rule
The tendency of large-scale org. to develop into the bureaucratic form with the effect that administrators make key policy decisions
Capitalism
Economic system based on idea govt should interfere w economic trans as little as possible
Free enterprise and self-reliance
Communism
Economic system in which govt owns most or all major industries and takes resp for overall management of the economy
Constitutionalism
Idea that there are definable limits on the rightful power of a govt over its citizens
Democracy
Govt in which the people govern either directly or through elected reps
Diversity
Princ that ind and group diff should be respected and are a source of natl strength
Elitism
View that the US essentially is run by a tiny elite who control public policy through direct and indirect means
Equality
All ind are equal in their moral worth in treatment under law and their political voice
Individualism
Idea people should take the intiative be self-sufficient and accumulate the material adv necessary for their well being
Liberty
Princ. that ind should be free to act and think as they choose provided they do not infringe unreasonably on the rights and freedoms of others
Majoritarianism
Idea that the majority prevails not only in elections but also in determining policy
Oligarchy
Form of govt in which the control rests with a few persons
Pluralism
Theory of American politics that holds that society's interest are substantially represented through the activities of groups
Political Culture
The characteristic and deep-seated beliefs of a particular people
Political System
The various components of American govt The parts are separate but they connect with each other, affecting how each performs
Politics
the process through which society makes its governing decisions
Power
The ability of persons or institutions to control policy
Public Policy
A decision of govt to pursue a course of action designed to produce an intended outcome
Self-Govt
Principle that the people are the ultimate source and proper beneficiary of governing authority, a govt based on majority rule
Social Contract
A voluntary agreement by ind to form a govt which is then obligated to act within the confines of that agreement
Socialism
Economic system in which govt owns and controls many of the major industries
Totalitarian Govt
Form of govt in which the leaders claim complete dominance of all ind and institutions
Unity
The principle that Americans are one people and form an indivisible union
Anti-Federalists
Against the ratification of the constitution
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments
Checks and Balances
Separation of powers to the diff branches of govt
Constitution
Fundamental law that defines how a govt will legitimately operate
Constitutional Democracy
Govt that is democratic in its provisions for majority influence through elections and constitutional in its provisions for minority rights and rule by law
Delegates
Elected Repres whose obligation is to act in accordance with the expressed wishes of the people they represent
Democracy
Form of govt which people govern either directly or through elected representatives
Denials of Power
Constitutional means of limiting governmental action by listing those powers that govt is expressly prohibited from using
Electoral College
unofficial term that refers to the electors who cast the states' electoral votes
Electoral Votes
Most popular votes wins the electoral votes for a state
Federalists
Pro-Constitution
Grants of Power
The method of limiting the US govt by confining its scope of authority to those powers expressly granted in the Constitution
Great Compromise
Agreement of the constitutional convention to create a two-chamber Congress and the House apportioned by pop and the Senate apportioned equally by state
Inalienable Rights
Rights such as life, liberty, and property
Judicial Review
power of courts to decide whether a governmental institution has acted within its constit powers and if not to declare its action null and void
Limited Govt
subject to strict limits on its lawful uses of powers and hence on its ability to deprive people of their liberty
New Jersey Plan
Each state have 1 Congress vote
North South Compromise
agreement over economic and slavery issues to avoid new constitution
Primary Election
election people choose party candidate
Representative Democracy
A system where people participate in the decision-making process of govt not dir but indir through the election of officials to repr their interests
Republic
Govt that representative officials meet to decide on policies and represent public interest
Self-govt
Principle people are ultimate source and proper beneficiary of governing authority, Govt Based on Majority Rule
Separated Institutions sharing power
Power divided by branches
Separation of powers
division of the powers of govt among sep institutions or branches
Trustees
elected repres whose obligation is to act on their conscience with respect to public interest
Tyranny of the majority
Potential of a majority to monopolize power for its own gain and detriment of minority rights and interests
Virginia Plan
Strong Congress with two chambers more power to large states
Block Grants
Federal Grants that allow states and local officials to spend money in a general category
Categorical Grants
Fed grants that can be used only for specific projects
Commerce Clause
Clause of Constitution that empowers fed govt to regulate interstate commerce
Confederacy
Govt power vested in states
Cooperative Federalism
Situation in which the natl state and local levels work together to solve problems
Devolution
the passing down of authority from the natl govt to states and localities
Dual Federalism
doctrine based on the idea that a precise sep of natl power and state power is both possible and desirable
Enumerated Powers
17 powers granted to natl govt under Article I and include taxation and the reg of commerce and provide natl defense
Federalism
governmental system which authority is divided into natl and regional govt
Fiscal Federalism
expenditure of federal funds on programs run in part through states and localities
Grants-in-aid
Federal cash payments to states and localities for programs they administer
implied powers
ability for natl govt to take powers not in constitution but supports powers that are
necessary and proper clause
implied powers
reserved powers
powers granted to the states under the 10th amendment to the Constitution
sovereignty
ultimate auth to govern within a certain geographical area
supremacy clause
Article 6 of the Constitution makes powers of natl higher than states when they abide by constitution
unitary system
govt system which natl govt alone has sovereign authority
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments to Constitution
Civil Liberties
fundamental individual rights of a free society
Clear-and-present-danger test
test to define if govt limits free speech
due process clause of the fourteenth Amendment
clause of Constitution that is used by judiciary to apply the bill of rights to the actions of the state govts
Establishment Clause
1st amendment provision that govt may not favor one religion over another
Exclusionary rule
legal principle that govt is prohibited from using in trials evidence that was obtained by unconstitutional means
freedom of expression
Americans' freedom to communicate their views
free-exercise clause
1st amendment provision that prohibits the govt from interfering with the practice of religion or prohibiting the practice
imminent-lawless-action test
legal test govt cant lawfully suppress advocacy that promotes lawless action unless such advocacy is aimed at prod and is likely to prod imminent lawless action
libel
public of material that falsely damages a person's reputation
prior restraint
govt prohibition of speech or publication before the fact which is presumed by the courts to be constitutional unless the justification for its overwhelming
procedural due process
const req that goct follow proper legal proc before a person can be legit punished for an alleged offense
Selective Incorp
absorption of certain provisions of the Bill of Rights into the 14th amendment so that these rights are protected from infringement by the states
Slander
Spoken words that falsely damage a person's reputation
Symbolic Speech
action for the purpose of expressing a political opinion
Affirmative Action
programs ensure women, minorities and other trad disadvantaged groups have full and equal opp in employment edu and other areas
Civil Rights
right every person to equal protection under the laws and equal access to society's opport and public facilities
De Facto Discrimination
discrimination based on race,sex,religion,ethnicity, and the like that results from social economic and cultural biases and conditions
De Jure Discrimination
discrimination basis of race sex religion ethnicity and the like that result from a law
Equality of Result
obj of policies intended to reduce or eliminate the effects of discrimination so that memebers of trad disadvantaged groups will have the same benefits of society
Equal-protection clause
clause of the 14th amend that forbids any state to deny equal protection of the laws to any ind within its jurisdiction
Equal Rights
civil rights
Gender Gap
tendency of women and men to differ in their political attitudes and voting pref
Intermediate-scrutiny test
test eliminates gender as a legal classification unless it serves an imp objective and is substantially related to the obj and is substantially related to the obj achievement
reasonable-basis test
test applied by courts to laws that treat individuals unequally
strict-scrutiny test
test applied by courts to laws that attempt a racial or ethnic classification
suspect classifications
legal classifications such as race and natl origin that have invidious discrimination as their purpose and are therefore unconstitutional