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237 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The essential element of diplomacy's level of __________.
a
The traditional approach to underlying national diplomacy assumes that nations apply power _______________.
b
The sum of the attributes that enables a state to achieve its goals, even when they clash with the goals and wills of other international actors, is the definition of a country's _____________.
c
Tangible elements of power include all of the following except ______________
d (will not answer)
The fate of the Soviet Union demonstrates that power is ___________.
e
Which of the following best describes the concept of coercive power?
f (will not answer)
In recent decades, the importance of military power has ___________.
g
Which of the following is an example of persuasive power?
h (will not answer)
Objective power is power that ___________.
i
If a gain in power by one actor inevitably means a loss of power for others, the situation can be described as ____________________.
j
To say that Germany is more powerful then Botswana but less powerful than the United States reflects the fact that power is _______________.
k
If an actor can gain power without the power of other actors being diminished, that power is considered ______________.
l
Which of the following best describes the concept of situational power?
m (will not answer)
The view that many factors should be taken into account when measuring a country's national power suggests that power is _____________.
n
Despite formidable power, the U.S. military attack against Afghanistan after the September 11th attacks was only a limited success because __________
o
Which of the following countries has historically benefited from its sheer size?
a
Which of the following nations was able to limit its involvement in World War II due to its relatively isolated location?
b
Human characteristics important to national power include all of the following except________.
c
Which of the following countries is least likely to gain superpower status because of its small population?
d
Which of the following best describes the influence of population on the overall power of a country?
e
A nation is said to suffer a “brain drain” when _______.
f
Which of the following statements best characterizes the relationship between education and national power _____________
g
The AIDS epidemic has affected all areas of the world but has hit which continent particularly hard?
h
AIDS kills approximately how many people in Africa per year?
i
The United States has approximately how many times more Internet users per capita than China?
j
U.S. diplomacy during the 1993-1994 nuclear crisis in North Korea was limited by all of the following except ________
k
One lesson that can be drawn from the crisis between the United States and North Korea is that ___________.
l
In the role of negotiator, a diplomat’s main task is to _________.
m
In which role does a diplomat explain and defend the policies of the diplomat’s country?
n
In the immediate aftermath of the September 11th attacks, U.S. diplomacy toward Afghanistan was best characterized as ___________
o
When President George W. Bush first took office, he maintained a unilateral approach to diplomacy. However, because of the complexities of fighting global terrorism President Bush has altered his approach to diplomacy and has become more focused on ___________.
a
In what type of diplomacy do countries often engage to settle such issues as economic disputes, where interests clash but there is very little chance of armed conflict?
b
Which of the following best describes the concept of mediation diplomacy?
c
The combination of international and national factors that influence diplomats’ policy making is known as ____________.
d
Woodrow Wilson’s call for a League of Nations symbolizes the rise of ___________.
e
One advantage of secret diplomacy is that it ____________
f
Which of the following best describes parliamentary diplomacy?
g
Which of the following is a disadvantage of leader-to-leader diplomacy?
h
In which type of diplomacy is propaganda primarily used?
i
Effective diplomacy requires that international actors take into consideration all of the following except _______.
j
Seeking common ground means that diplomats should __________.
k
One advantage of vagueness is that countries ___________.
l
The dilemma over whether China should be admitted to the WTO in spite of its policy towards Taiwan is an example of ____________.
m
When a country promotes its efforts as necessary for national survival or world peace it is said to be __________.
n
The international system of law ____________(evolution over time)
o
What was one of international law’s first concerns?
a
International law works best in the realm of functional relations. All of the following are examples of functional relations except ____________.
b
Why might international legal standards influence the conduct of international politics?
c
International law is least effective when applied to “high politics.” All of the following involve high politics except __________.
d
Low politics includes all of the following except _____________.
e
The decision by the United States to seek UN approval before acting in Afghanistan reflects the ___________.
f
Which of the following is not a source of international law?
g
The idea of pacta sunt servanda means that _______________.
h
According to the text, treaties signed by more than one nation are known as ______________.
i
Why are multinational treaties increasingly important to international law?
j
The rule that territorial waters extend three miles from shore is an example of ___________.
k
Slobodan Milosevic is the former president of _______________.
l
The doctrine of stare decisis establishes __________________.
m
Among various nations, the culture of compliance within each nation _____________.
n
The degree of compliance to the law in the international system _____________.
o
Compliance to international law is largely based on ____________
a
As a tool of coercion in the application of international law, economic and diplomatic sanctions __________.
b
Methods of settling disputes consist of bargaining, mediation and __________.
c
The German law barring women from holding military combat positions was challenged as discriminatory by a lawsuit in the _______________.
d
Which countries, by tradition, have always been represented by a judge on the International Court of Justice?
e
The International Court of Justice is located in ____________
f
The adjudication of international disputes is hindered by ____________
g
Which actor would not be permitted to submit a case before the International Court of Justice?
h
The optional clause of the ICJ statute is an agreement by states to _____________.
i
From 1946 through the present, the International Court of Justice has taken up about how many contentious cases every year?
j
The ICJ case regarding the Nicaragua-Colombia maritime border dispute demonstrates that __________.
k
What does the 1984 Nicaragua versus United States case demonstrate with respect to the ICJ?
l
Most of international law and many of the international standards of morality are based on ________.
m
Why did many LDCs voice objection to the NATO involvement in Kosovo in 1999?
n
Western morality and culture emphasize ______________
o
The idea of imposing a single standard of norms through international law is associated with __________.
a
Who wrote the very influential political tract "The Prince?"
b
Who argued that the state cannot be held to individual moral standards?
c
International law has encroached on state sovereignty by ______________.
d
The just war principle of jus in bello requires that _____________.
e
Certain rules regarding treatment of prisoners of war, use of permissible weapons, methods of combat are known as ___________.
f
An argument that the use of nuclear weapons is immoral under any condition would rely on the principle of _____________.
g
Which of the following rationales for going to war is considered “just” according to the UN Charter?
h
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was passed by the U.N. General Assembly in __________.
i
What is the greatest concern of international law regarding human rights?
j
The precedent that obeying orders does not excuse combatants from responsibility for war crimes was first established _________________
k
Adolf Eichman was tried and executed in which of the following countries for his activities as a high-ranking official in Nazi Germany?
l
The Khmer Rouge were a brutal Maoist faction responsible for millions of deaths in which country?
m
The newly established International Criminal Court has jurisdiction over ___________.
n
Advocates of applying principles of morality and law to international politics contend that _____________.
o
With respect to morality, realists argue that ________.
a
Which of the following can be described as a middle ground between the moral absolutism of Kant and the postmodern moral relativism, which is in vogue today?
b
What is one way that political scientists gauge political violence?
c
Which perspective is represented by the statement “The decisive means for politics is violence?"
d
Approximately what percentage of all war fatalities since the year 1000 occurred in the twentieth century?
e
Military power, apart from its use or even threat of use, is effective because __________.
f
A third party supplying military arms, advisers, or training to one side in a conflict is an example of _______ intervention.
g
Overtly wielding restrained conventional force to intimidate or harass rather than defeat an opponent is an example of ______________.
h
The calculation of the probability of success in waging a war is termed ___________.
i
During the last five centuries, the success rate of great powers that initiated wars has ___________.
j
Nationalism has extended the scope of war because _________________.
k
The ability to inflict pain outside the immediate military sphere is called __________.
l
Who was the first modern military leader to understand the value of the power to hurt?
m
General Sherman applied the power to hurt in which conflict?
n
The world’s leading arms exporter is _____________.
o
Arms transfers in East Asia during the 1990s _______________
a
The persistent level of conflict in Afghanistan during the last quarter century is due largely to ___________.
b
One ethical drawback to arms transfers is _________
c
Approximately 85 percent of military weaponry transfers from 1996-2000 came from the U.S., Russia, Great Britain, Germany, and ______________.
d
Covertly deploying military forces, intelligence operatives, and commandos is known as __________.
e
One way to have both a lower defense budget and continued weapons production capability is to ___________.
f
The trade-off between defense spending and domestic spending is known as ___________.
g
In general, increased arms sales to a region results in ____________
h
The use of Stinger surface-to-air missiles by Taliban and al-Qaeda forces in Afghanistan demonstrates which drawback associated with arms transfers?
i
According to the laws of war, the 2000 attack on the USS Cole when refueling was not strictly an act of terrorism because the Cole _______________
j
Which international terrorist group was responsible for the attacks on U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania?
k
A system-level interpretation of terrorism argues that terrorism _______________
l
All of the following are elements of conventional warfare except ________________
m
Which of the following wrote the classic military treatise On War?
n
The use of biological weapons dates back to the ____________________.
o
In theory, which international agreement bans the production, possession, and use of germ-based biological weapons?
a
What does the acronym M.A.D. represent?
b
With the end of the cold war, the two largest nuclear arsenals belong to __________
c
Proponents of the nuclear utilization theory (NUT) favor a nuclear strategy that uses ___________.
d
Traditionally states have felt that aggression is best deterred through __________
e
Which approach to security is based on the realist assumption that countries are inherently greedy and collectively violent?
f
All of the following are elements of a realist perspective except _________.
g
Which of the following statements is true regarding realists’ beliefs about arms control?
h
The fact that most people in the United States are peaceful, honest, and unlikely to attack you or steal your property is due to ____________
i
What is the primary peacekeeping mechanism of the limited self-defense approach to security?
j
The approach to security that involves limiting the number and types of weapons countries possess is referred to as ___________
k
According to realists, which of the following is the most significant barrier to arms control?
l
Which Secretary of Defense called for a significant increase in defense spending in light of post-Cold War defense needs?
m
Which of the following best characterizes President George W. Bush’s approach to security?
n
President Reagan believed that peace was best achieved through ___________/
o
The use of satellites and seismic measuring devices to monitor nuclear weapons proliferation is known as _________
a
A treaty violation that is significant enough by itself to endanger the security of another country is known as __________
b
The recent problems encountered by U.N. weapons inspectors in Iraq revealed some of the limitations of _____________
c
Which of the following security organization orchestrated interventions in war torn Liberia and also in Sierra Leone?
d
Which concept is behind the use of most international security forces?
e
How many UN peacekeeping forces were deployed in 2003?
f
A proactive approach to security involving heavily armed UN forces is an effort of _____________.
g
The predominant philosophy associated with unilateral disarmament is ____________
h
Negotiated disarmament is a strategy whereby ___________.
i
A philosophical aversion to war is known as ________________
j
The principal economic actors on the world stage according to the perspective of economic nationalists are _____________
k
Trade regulations based upon health and safety considerations are known as _____________.
l
Domestic subsidies are used by governments to ________________.
m
The fundamental cause of concern among EDCs is that the North’s economy is ___________.
n
Which of the following nations is not a member of NAFTA?
o
Trade relations among EDCs have ________________.
a
What industrial product has been the subject of a recent and intense trade dispute between the United States on one hand and the EU and Japan on the other?
b
Which of the following best describes the relative opinions of leaders and the general public in the United States regarding job protection as a foreign policy goal?
c
During the year 2000, the NICs accounted for approximately what percentage of the South’s combined GDPs?
d
The mixed pattern of LDC development is caused __________
e
Which is the most populous urban area?
f
All of the following are true about industrial and environmental conditions in developing countries except _________
g
Approximately what percent of LLDC merchandise exports are primary products?
h
Which international institution has not been targeted for reform by LDCs?
i
OPEC is a cartel which seeks to control the production of ____________.
j
Cordell Hull served in what U.S. government position?
k
The GATT has its headquarters in ___________.
l
Members of the WTO account for about what percentage of world trade?
m
What did signatories of the Uruguay Round document pledge to do about tariffs over the next 10 years?
n
As of 2002, which country has been involved in WTO hearings most frequently?
o
The IMF was established as part of the __________
a
The international organization most involved in promoting monetary cooperation is the ___________.
b
As of 2001, which country has received the largest amount of IMF funds?
c
The International Finance Corporation focuses on making loans to __________.
d
Which of the following is not an LDC criticism of the World Bank?
e
The least integrated type of transnational economic activity is ___________
f
Which of the following is the highest level of economic integration?
g
The origins of a hemispheric bloc dominated by the United States can be found in __________.
h
The central purpose of NAFTA is ___________.
i
The Free Trade Area of the Americas is ____________.
j
Green accounting is used by the World Bank to measure ____________.
k
The concept of natural capital is divided into which two categories?
l
The right to self-expression is categorized by Galtung as a(n) ___________.
m
Many Western countries have criticized the U.S. human rights record on the grounds that in the United States ______________.
n
What did Thomas Malthus predict would happen to the world population and food production?
o
Whereas short-term food supply focuses on regional shortages, long-term food supply focuses primarily on ________
a
Which of the following provides the best evidence that food is maldistributed throughout the world?
b
The largest multilateral food aid program is controlled by the ____________.
c
The International Fund for Agricultural Development is an agency of ____________.
d
Which of the following factors limits the success of world food conferences?
e
Which of the following diseases was thought to be on the decline, yet has surged catastrophically in recent years?
f
As of 2002 how many people in the world were HIV- positive?
g
Which of the following best represents Daniel Goldhagen’s thesis concerning anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany?
h
What practice has been referred to as the “Natasha trade?”
i
The Committee for the Propagation of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice is the religious police force of which of the following countries?
j
Approximately what percent of children from ages 5 - 14 participate in the labor force in Africa?
k
The authors consider children akin to a minority group because they ________________.
l
The term “boy soldier” refers to the ___________.
m
National policy based on racial/ethnic domination was officially abandoned in which country?
n
The Fourth World refers to __________________.
o
Solving refugee and immigration problems depends on ___________.
a
The most important effort to monitor global human rights issues is directed by ____________.
b
At the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights _____________.
c
The United Nations and other international forums related to human rights issues have been limited by _________.
d
One notable stride for women’s rights occurred when an overwhelming majority of countries signed a treaty to create the ____________.
e
Which country has yet to sign the treaty that resulted from the Convention on the Rights of Children on the grounds that it may prohibit criminals under the age of 18 from being executed?
f
The 2001 Third World Conference on Racism was held in ____________.
g
The least successful international efforts concern _______________.
h
The largest number of humans that the earth can sustain indefinitely at current rates of per capita consumption of natural resources is known as the Earth’s _________.
i
Which of the following best describes the concept of sustainable development?
j
Individuals who believe that humans are doing serious, irreversible damage to the environment are espousing __________.
k
The idea that humankind will be able to meet environmental needs and hence be able to continue to prosper is a guiding principle of environmental ____________.
l
One primary reason that environmental optimists are not concerned with natural resource depletion is they believe that ______________.
m
Which nation ranks second only to the United States in the production of carbon dioxide?
n
The Three Gorges Dam is being built on which river?
o
It took until 1804 for the world’s population to reach 1 billion. Now 1 billion people are added to the world’s population approximately every _____________.
a
Which of the following statements best explains population growth despite declining global fertility rates?
b
Women in LDCs have fewer opportunities to limit the number of children they have because they _____________
c
Why did President Bush prohibit the United States from making payments to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)?
d
Which well-respected international organization sponsors the World Population Conference series?
e
The contraceptive prevalence rate in LDCs is _____________.
f
Economic approaches to reducing the birthrate place great emphasis on _________
g
What is the primary mission of the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)?
h
The majority of the world’s energy is supplied by ____________.
i
Which of the following countries relies heavily on nuclear power as its primary source of energy?
j
How many people in the world still depend upon wood as an energy source?
k
Approximately what percentage of the world’s water is readily available for human consumption?
l
The majority of freshwater is used for ______________.
m
Which sea has lost over 75 percent of its water due to increased agricultural demands and poor human planning?
n
The UNEP predicts that if current water consumption patterns continue ___________.
o
Which country continues to kill whales under the guise of scientific research despite the International Whaling Commission’s ban on commercial whaling?
a
Joschka Fischer is one of the most visible environmental leaders in the world and has had a vast influence on the foreign policy of _________.
b
Which of the following statements regarding ground pollution is true?
c
Defoliation of trees in parts of Europe and North America is a result of __________.
d
The recent decline in air pollution in EDCs is offset by ___________.
e
Deforestation contributes to increasing carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere because __________.
f
Which UN-sponsored body issued a warning about global warming?
g
The thinning of the ozone layer causes ___________.
h
Environmental protection measures are primarily driven by ___________.
i
By the year 2050, scientists expect that _______________.
j
The primary focus of the 1989 Basel Convention was to address _________.
k
The need to cooperate to solve global problems is a concept that only really penetrated our consciousness ___________.
l