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46 Cards in this Set

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Politics is the process of who gets what, when and how
Harold Lasswell
Politics
process whereby binding value allocations are made for a collectivety
Nation
a large group, or community, from which members derive their basic political identity and toward which they devote great loyalty
(price)
Specific support
-instrumental, calculative,
-insufficient for political stability
Diffuse support
-emotional
-attchment to the system for "its own sake"
-creates "store of good will"
3 levels of a political system:
-officials
>>office holders
-Regime
>>"constitutional order"
-community
>>membership grp
causes of demand overload
-too many demands for the regime to process
-insufficient resources available to the system
-existing pattern of resource allocation
Sources of Power:
-force

-materials

-legitamacy
>>moral claim
Force compliance structure:
Coercive
Rewards comp. struc.
Utilitarian
Legitamacy comp. struc.
Authoritative (normative)
Coercive Comp. Struc.
-costly
-inefficient
-alienation
Utilitarian Compliance Struct.
-unstable
>>scarcity = instability
-unreliable
>>collective goods, free riders
-costly
Authoratative (Normative) Comp. Struct.
-legitamacy
-effiecient
Legitamacy
-a belief that the ruler has a right to command obedience and the subject has a moral obligation to comply
How is legitamacy created?
utility + ideology
3 forms of Authority:
-rational-legal
-traditional
-charismatic
-expertise
Rat-Legal auth.
-procedural authority
-authority constrained by specific rules
-violations lead to loss of legit.
Traditional Authority
-legit.:social status + custom
-authority excersized as a personal privlige
>>broad parameters for exercising power
-bond between ruler and ruled is known as mutual loyalty and diffuse reciprocity
Charismatic Authority
-based on personal legitamacy
>leader unconstrained, requires absolute loyalty
-bond only exists btwn leader and followers (only in their minds)
Nation
a terminal political community (one requiring absolute loyalty).
Bases of nationhood
-ethnic
-theocratic
-Civic nation (individual volition)
characteristics of communalism:
-intense (violent) conflict
>>domestic politics becomes like int'l politics
-politics of collective punishment
-seccesion
-hostile environ for democracy
>>election = centrifugal mobiliztion
>>elite counter action:
^^single party state
^^managed electoral comp.
^^power sharing (consociationalism)
-threat to economic develpt
>>impediment to moblzng sacrifice
>>resrce trsfrs are poli. xplsve
>>econmclly irrational allocation of resources
Consociationalism
-proportional representation
-grand coalition
-mutual veto
>>agrment among communal elites
>>no mass mobilization
Elements of Political culture
1-cognition
>>empirical beleifs
2-values
3-emotional commitments
Ideology VS. Political Culture
-P.C. is trnsmtted by socialization
-ideology is not, it is imposed
Issue Scope
defines which wants are appropriate
classical liberalism
-oppsd to gov't intervention in economy and society
New Deal Liberalism
-pro gov't intervention if the economy
-anti gov't "" in personal lives of peps
American Conservatism
-hostile to gov't intervention in econ. and society
-wants gov't to shape individuals thoughts and behvrs
Lockian Liberalism
-atomized individuals
-individ competetion
-priv property
-egalitarian ethic
-rejct collective action
What Produces conformity?
1-Social Reality Principle
>>

2-Instrumental value of conforming
>>direct:grp locomotion effect
>>indirect:social pressre to confrm
^^acces to grp based resrces
3-reference grp behvr
>>psychological id with a grp
Civil Society
social space autonomous from state control
Cmpnts of Industrial Order
1-production geared to exchange, not subsistence
2-use of non-animate srces of power
3-app. of scientific and engineering knowledge to production
4-factrs of production concentrated in lrg units (factories, cities)
Modernization
1-individuation replaces corpratism
2-strct diff
3-moderation of pltcal climate>>>leds to cross-cutting cleavages.
req's for a civil society
1-social strata with interst in limiting state's reach
2-scl strata able to resist state
>fincially, militarily, organizational
3-autonomy bcms embedded
welfare Paradox
-to get more mteral wealth state must accept less mteral wealth in shrt

-indus. will lead to extreme of this due to:
1-social overhead investment
2-capital (producer) goods investment

>there is a lag btwn invstmnt and grwth
How did Britain get over WP?
1-industrial rev preceded mass democracy
>>lack of political participation
2-imperialism
>>slvs
>>colonialism
all redced effect of the WP
Democ & Indus. In the US
-political culture
-immigration
-political struct.
Lennist Mobilization System
-command economy
-elimination of civil society
state-managed capitalism
-econ. intervtist state
-"managed comp"
-exprt orientiation is key to succes
-labor repression
Soviet Econ strat.
1-high levels of capital accumulation
2-concerntration of industry (especially heavy)
3-rural collectivization
Lenninist Mblztion system
1-rapid indus
2-ttl moblztion of all rsrces
3-nationalis
4-"vanguard party"
5-normative + coercive compliance struct.
Perestroika
restructuring of the economy,
1-shift away from heavy industry
2->intro of markets to replace central admin control
>>intro of prv prprty
Glasnost
political opening.
>gain suprt of mdlle class
>weaken brcrtic interests
>create transparency

*eventually undermines perestroika
Black Labor Repression
1-land segregation
>>Native Land Act of 1913
*87% of land reserved for whites

2-made it illegal for black labor organization and strikes too