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61 Cards in this Set

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International Relations (IR)
-involve relationships among the world's state gov'Ts
-are anarchic in nature with no overruling authority
-closely connected with other actors such (UN), with other social structures (economics), and with geographical and historical influence
International Political Economy (IPE)
-became a field of study in the 70s and 80s as economics became increasingly central to IR
-involves the study of politics of trade, monetary, and other economic relations among nations and their ceonnection to their transnational forces
State
-a territory populated by people with a shared history and ideals and an authoritative govT
-soverign
-must be able to maintain order, fulfill international obligations, and extract resources from their ppl
-NZ is an ex.
United Nations (UN)
-organization of nearly all the world states
-created after WWII to promote collective security
-based on the principles that states are equal, have soverignty over their affairs, enjoy independence and fulfill international obligations
-191 members as of '06
Sovereignty
-developed fm treaty of westphalia 1648
-state has the right to do whatever it wants within its own territory
-recognized thu diplomatic relations and membership of the UN
Diplomatic Recognition
-process defines the status of embassies and of an ambassador as an offical state rep.
-diplomats must be accredited to each other's govTs and thereafter have the right to occupy an embassy in the host country as tho it were their own state's territory
Nongovernmental Organization (NGO)
-transnational groups or entities that interact with states, mulinational corps, other ngos and intergovernmental organizations
-represent political humanitarian and economic interests
-greenpeace or catholic church are ex.
Nation
-a population that shares an identity, usually including lang. and culture
-this concept lead to self determiniation which implies that ppl who identiy as a nation should have the right to form a state and exercize sovereignty over their affairs
-when borders of perceived nations dont match the states conficts arise (sudan)
Country
-geographical entity/ territory
-commonly associated with the notions of state or nation
-dozens of nonsovereign territories which are geographical countries but not sovereign states
-have their own govt, administration and laws, constitution, military, police, tax, and a population
-NZ is an ex.
International System
-system of states that act regularly in an anarchic manner
-founded upon the treaty of westphalia
-establishes a set of norms that states are expected to follow but no enforcement is in play
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
-the size of a states total annual economic activity
-large gap between highest and lowest GDP
-the US is largest with $12 trillion
Nonstate Actors
-a variety of actors which operate below a state of across boundaries
-they can exist as groups within states that influence a state's foreign policy (substate actors)
-could also be businesses who buy, sell, invest in a variety of countries (transnational actors)
Intergovernmental Organization (IGO)
-organizations whose members are national govts
-created by states to provide some function that those states find useful
-world trade organization is an ex. it was created to facilitate negotiations about lowering trade barries
North-South Gap
-global gap between the rich industrialized countries (north) and the poor countries (south)
-most significant geographic element at the global level of analysis
-south are developing countries (south africa)
-north are developed countries (US)
Imperialism
-acquisition of colonies by conquest or other
-Lenin's theory said european capitalists were investing in colonies where they could earn big profits and then using part of these to buy off the working class at home
-european imperialism started in the 15th century with development of oceangoing sailing ships
-with superior military technology they gained control of coastal cities and major trade routes
-had drastic affects on indigenous ppl
Nationalism
-devotion to the interests of ones nation
-considered one of the most important forces of world politics in the past 2 centuries
-establishes a national identity as a persons's primary affiliation in much of the world
Industrialization
-use of energy to drive machinery and the accumulation of the machinery along with the products created by it
-18th century industrial revolution came with the invention of the steam engine, cotton gin, mechanized thread spinner
-tired to britain's emerging leadership role in the worlds economy
Free Trade
-flow of goods and services across national boundaries unimpeded by tariffs or other restrictions
-key aspect of britains policy after 1846 and us policy afer 1945
Arms Race
-reciprocal process in which 2 or more states build up military capabilities in response to each other
-since each side wants to act prudently to prevent a threat the arms production grows out of control
-us vs. soviet union during cold war is best ex.
balance of power
-one or more states being used to balance that of another state or group of states
-theory argues that such counterbalancing occurs regularly and maintains the stability of the int'l system
-system is stable if sovereignty maintains in tact and a universal empire doesnt take over
Civil War
-war between 2 factions within a state trying to create or prevent a new govt for the entire state or some territorial part of it
-trying to change the system of govT, replace the ppl within it, or split off into a new state
-us civil war in 1860s is ex. of secessionist civil war
Cycle Theories
-effort to explain tendencies toward war in the int'l system as cyclical
-kondratieff cycles: by linking wards with long waves in the world economy of about 50yr duration
-another approach links the largest wards with a 100yr cycle based on the creation and decay of world orders
Deterrence
-threat to punish another actor if it takes a certain nevative action (esp. attacking ones own state or their allies)
-if it works the effects are invisible
-its success is measured in attacks that did not occur
Geopolitics
-use of geography as an element of pwr and the ideas about it held by pol. leaders and scholars
-states increase their pwr to the extent they can use geography to enhance their military capabilities
-most important consideration is location
Guerilla War
-warfare without front lines and with irregular forces operating in the midst of, and oftern hidden or protected by, civilians
-dont directly confront an enemy army but harass and punish it so it gradually limits operation and effectively liberate territory from its control
-iraqi paramilitary forces during iraq war 03-05
Hegemonic War (world war, global war, general war, systematic war)
-war over control of the entire world order-the rules of the int'l system as a whole
-WWII was the last hegemonic war and couldnt happen again without destroying civilization bc of the power of modern weaponry
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs)
-the longest range ballistic missiles, able to travel 5000miles
-unlike airplanes theyre extremely difficult to defend against
-main strategic delivery vehicles are ballistic missiles
-fired from fixed sites or mobile
Limited War
-military actions carried out to gain some objectives short of the surrender and occupation of the enemy
-many border wards have this character: after occupying the land it wants, a state may stop short and defend its gains (US led war against Iraq in 1991)
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
-the possession of second strike nuclear capablities
-ensures that neither of the 2 adversaries could prevent the other from destroying it in an all out war
-developed during cold war
-application of deterrence theory
Non-Proliferation Theory (NPT)
-1968
-created a framework for controlling the spread of nuclear materials and expertise
-some of the potential nuclear states have not signed the npt (israel)
-includes the international atomic energy agency (IAEA): UN agency in Vienna that is charged with inspecting nuclear power in NPT member states to prevent secret military diversions of nuclear materials
Power
-actor's ability to make others do things that they wouldnt otherwise do
-not influence itself but the ability or potential to influence the others behavior
-measured by the possession of certain tangible and intangible characteristics
-power resources (GDP) and power capabilities (military)
Proxy Wars
-wars in the 3rd world, often civil wars, where the US and Soviet Union jockeyed for position by supplying and advising opposing factors
-alignments are often arbitrary (us backed ethiopia, soviets backed somalia but ethiopian govT had to seek soviet help so US switched to somalia's side 70s)
Total War
-warfare by one state wages to conquer and occupy another
-originated in the Napoleonic Wars which relied upon conscription on a mass scale
-goal is to reach capital city and force govT to surrender
-evolved with industrialization
-2003 iraq war
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
-nuclear, chemical and biological weapons all distinguished from conventional weapons by their enormous potentional lethality
-lack of discrimination in whom they kill (mass fatality)
Alliances
-coalition of states that coordinate their actions to accomplish some end
-most are formalized in written treates, concern a common threat, and endure across a range of issues and period of time
-north atlantic treaty organization is most prominent alliance
Anarchy
-lack of central govt that can enfore rules
-IR are conducted in an anarchic manner bc there is no overruling organization
-on the int'l scene it means that power of one state is counted only by the power of another
Century of Humiliation
-100yrs before the founding of the peoples republic of china in 1949
-began with chinas defeat at the hands of western forces during the opium wars of the mid 19th century
-that initiated partial colonization of areas of china via a series of "unequal treaties"
Cold War
-ideological conflict between US and soviet union from 1945-1990
-us initiated a foreign policy of containment towards communism and has based much of its foreign policies and military build up upon this
Containment
-policy adopted in 1940s by the US to stop the global expansion of soviet influence on several levels (military, pol., ideological, and economic)
-most foreign policy from foreign aid to military invention and diplomacy are based upon goal of containment
Democratic Peace Treaty
-proposition that democracies almost never fight wars against eachother
-strongly supported by empirical evidence
-checks and balances limit authority of one force (Kant)
-their trade relations amongst the capitalist states create strong interdependence
Hegemony
-one state has predominance power in the int'l system
-it can single handedly dominate the rules and arrangements in which int'l policitcal and economic relations are conducted
-us right now can be argued to be one
Hegemonic Stability Theory
-regimes are most effective when power in the int'l system is most concentrated
-a hegemon maintains world order and prevents other states from destabilizing the int'l system
-this theory is part of the war on terror laid out in the bush doctrine
Idealism
-approach that emphasized int'l law, morality, and int'l organization rather then power alone as the key influence
-human nature is basically good
-int'l system is a community of states that have the potentional to ovecome mutual probs
National Interests
-overall interest of the state not just the parties or factions within a state's interest
-realists believe the exercise of power attempts to advance the national interest
-us's would be suppresing terrorist groups worldwide
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
-us led military alliance formed in 1949 with mainly western european members
-formed to oppose and deter soviet power in europe
-it is currently expanding into the former soviet block and has 26 members
Peoples Republic of China (PRC)
-the central govT of China and was established in 1949
-it's legitimacy led to the end of the century of humiliation
Preemptive Defense
-attacking of another state to prevent an imminent threat that they present
-laid down by bush doctrine and was the justification of the invasion of iraq
-goal was to capture alleged weapons of mass destruction before they could be used against the us and allies
Rational Actors
-actors conceived as single entities that can "think" about their actions coherently, make choices, identify their interests, rank their interests
-can perform cost-benefit analysis which is calculating the costs incurred by a possible action and benefits its likely to bring
Realism
-view of IR that explains interactions in terms of power
-pessimistic about human nature and believe that states are selfish in their actions
-provided a theoretical background for cold war policies of containment
Succession
-effots by a province or region to secede from an existing state and create their own borders within that will be a new state entirely
-most attempts fail
-the mainly muslim republic of Chechnya tried to split away from russia in 90s
Security Dilemma
-situation in which states action taken to assure their own security tend to threaten the security of other states
-the responses of the other states in turn threaten the first state
-us missile defenses have worried china and possibly caused proliferation of more nuclear weapons, ex.
Shanghai Communique
-important diplomatic document issued by the us and the PRC in '72
-pledged that it was the interest of all nations for the us and china to work towards normalization of relations
-laid out the One China Policy which est. that taiwan was under chines governance
Spratly Islands
-dispute between china, vietnam, malaysia, philippines over these islands bc may hold oil reserves
-claimed in part or in full by all these countries
-may signal china's intentions as a rising great power
Strategy
-combination of ends, ways, and means
-ends are goals, ways are courses of action and means are available resources
-pol. strategy are bargaining, reciprocity, and leverage
Taiwan
-regerred to as state or country but not formally recognized as a soverign state
-operates independently but is claimed by china and is not a member of the UN
-us will defend taiwan from chinese military takeover but not interefere with peaceful diplomacy between the two
Terrorism
-pol. violance that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately
-wants to demoralize a civilian population as leverage to discontent national govts
-al Qaeda on twin towers 9/11/01 made fighting terrorists a national interest of US
Treaty of Westphalia
-1648
-ended 30yrs war are the 8yrs war
-foundation for the concept of sovereign states and many european nations set up boundaries thru this treaty
-led to intl system working in an anarchic manner
Unilateralism
-any doctrine or agenda that supports one side
-occurs when one state decides to single handedly negotiate with another state
-us often does this, iraq's invasion of kuwait both ex.
Warsaw Pact
-soviet led Eastern European military alliance founded in 1955
-formed to oppose the NATO and US troops occupying europe during the cold war
WWII
-began in 1939 when germany invaded poland
-lead to france and britain to join against germany
-germany then invaded russia but lost from the east and us had allied forces on west
-leaders pledged to never allow it to occur again bc of the how bad the war crimes committed were
Zero Sum Game
-part of game theory which predicts bargaining outcomes between two diff players
-one players gain is by definition equal to the others loss, therefore no point in communication or cooperation between them bc their interests are diametrically opposed