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124 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Governmetn by the people, either directly or indirectly, with free and frequent elections
Government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials more directly
direct democracy
Government that derives its powers indirectly from the people, who elect those who will govern; also called a republic
representative democracy
a government that enforces recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of the peole to be heard through free, fair and relatively frequent elections
constitutional democracy
the set arrangements, including check and balances, federalis, separation of powers, sful of law, due process and a bill of rights, that requires leaders to listem, think , bargian, and explain before they act or make laws. We then hold them politically and legally accountable for how they exercise their powers
the idea that the rights of the nation are supreme over the rights of the individuals residing in that nation
the idea that a just government must derive its powers form the consent of the people it governs
popular consent
governance according to the expressed preferences of the majority
majority rule
the candidate or party that wins more than half the votes cast in an election
candidate or party with the most votes cast in a election, not necessarily more than half
a consistent pattern of beliefs abotu political values and the role of governemtn
Governemtn by reliqious leaders, who claim divine guidance
the first governmign document of the confederated states, drafted in 1777, ratified in 1781 and replaced by the present Constitution in 1789.
Articles of Confederation
A Convewntion held in Sept. 1787 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attending by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constituional Convention
Annapolis Convention
The vention in Philadelphia, May 25 to Septemeber 17, 1787, that framed the Constituion of the United States
Constitutional Convention
Rebellion by farmers in western Mass. in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures; led by Daniel Shays and importatn tbecause it highlighted the need for a strong national governemnt just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out
Shay's Rebellion
The principle of a two-house legislature
Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virgina delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature, the lwoer house to be elected by the voters and the upper chosen by the lower
Virginia Plan
Proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by William Paterson of New Jersy for a central government with a single-house legislature in which each state would be represented equally
New Jersey Plan
Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population wand an upper house in which each state would have two senators.
Connecticut Compromise
Compromise agreement between northern and sourthern states at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be countred for determining direct taxation and representation in the hOuse of Representatives
three-fifths compromise
Supporters of ratificaiton of the Constitution whose postion promoting a strong central government was later voiced int he Federalist party
Opponents of ratifciation of the Constitution and a strong central government generally
series of essays promoting ratifciaton of the Constituion, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison
The Federalists
God's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law
natural law
Constituional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial brances, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law and the judiciary interpreting the law
separation of power
Constitutioanl grant of power that enables each of the three beranches of government to check some acts of the others and therefore ensure that no branch can dominate
checks and balances
Governance divided between the parties especially when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress
divided government
eleciton in which voters choose party nominees
direct primary
procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a lwa or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters
procedure for submitting popular vote meausres passed byt the legislature or proposed amendments to a state constituion
procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term
The power of a court to refuse to enfore a law or a government reugulation that in the opinion of the judges conflicts with the U.S. Constituion or, in a state court, the state constitution
judicial review
Court order directing an official to perform an official duty
writ of mandamus
formal accusation against a public official, the first step in removal from office
directive issued by a president or governor that has the force of law
executive order
the power to keep exective communicaitons confidential, epecially if they relate to national security
executive privilege
presidentital refusal to allow an agency to spend funds authorized and appropriated by Congress
The oldest constituional democracy in the world
united states
The reason why U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights survive
each generation of Americans respects, renews and works at understaing the principles and values found in these documents
When one country decided to participate in an event (war) alone, instead of fighting with other counties
The United States has held _____ presidential and midterm elections and have witnessed the peaceful transfer of power from one party to another on dozen occasions
Government by the people requires
faith concerning our common human enterprise.
Constitutional democracy requires
constant attention to protecting the rights and opinions of others
T or F the word 'democracy' isn't found in the Declaration of Independence
a term of derision, a negative word, a reference to power wielded by an unfuly mob
direct democracy
A word that is interchangable with democracy
It is a government in whcih there are recognized, enforeced limits on the powers of all governmental officials
constitutional Democracy
________- is the single most important value in American history
the essence of liberty is
libeterty is
the individual's freedom and capacity to act positively to reach his or her goals. (free from)
_____ is based on free and fair elections held at intervals frequent enough to make them relevant to policy choices. Elections are one of the most important devices for keeping officials and representatives accountable.
domocratic government
Crucial to modern-day definitions of democracy is
the idea that opposition policical parties can exist, can run candidates in elections and can at least have a chane to replace those who are currently holding public office.
basic rule of democracy is...
majority rule
about _____- of our president have won with pluralities in the popular vote rather than majorties
The U.S constituional system has five disinctive elements
federalism, the division of powers between the national and state government; separtion of power among the executive, judicial and legislative brances; bicameralism; the division of legislative pwoer between two institutions - House of Representatives and the Senate; checks and balances in which weach branch is given the constitutional means, the political independence and the motives to check the powers of teh other branches; and a judically enforeable, written, explicit Bill of Rights that provides a guarantee of individual liberties and due process before the law
United States constituion is _________.
The British constituion is _________.
in writing
The three famous compromises decussed in terms of the Constituional Convention
the compromise btween large and small states over representation in Congress.
The compromise between North adn Sourth over the regulation and taxation of foreign commerce.
The compromise between North and South over the counting of slaves for the purpose of taxation and representation
North-sourth Compromises
the southern delegates insisted that a two-thirds majority be required in the Senate before the president could ratify a treaty.
the delegates agreed on the three-fifths commpromise.
_________ consists of instituions and processes that make and enfore laws
"people" and "leader"
The general assembly of the UN there are 191.
Nation States
a permanent associaotn of people politically organized upon a definite terriotry and habitually obeying the same authonomous government
?legal def. of government
Five elements to the legal def.
1. people
2. defined, secured and bordered territoy
3. sovereignty
4. government
5. social glue that holds the society together, "Sufficient Unity"- this can be many different forms, could be religous, ideological or social.
supreme temporal power; power and authority to command and coerce others. Where _________ lies will tell you just about everythign that you need to know about the form of government
Forms of Gov't:
All three funcitons or powers of government are centralized in a single national government (executive, judicial, legislative)
unitarian form
Forms of Government:
this is where hte national form of government shares powers with the local government and the local units are not just shadows. The national government has its constituional powers that are separate from that which is outlined for the states
federal form
Forms of Government:
each of the states or the provinces has power and authority independent of the national governemtn and each one of these shates are sovereighn in and among themselves. example: 11 southern states who left the union which started the civil war
conferational form
___________ is a system where it controls all three fucnitons of government, they operate via the forms of political parties. Ex: in England you have the labor party possessing a large number, they select a candidate and he becomes the prime minister. The majority party dominates everything they decide most everything.
Natural Rights
Freedom- absence of control; boundaries.
Freedom is a primary value, but freedom is associated with responsibility. YOu can't have on one without the other.
Right- individual power to do. Iberty is a right. Freedom of speech is a right.
_________ is where all power is centralized within one person or group of people. Ex: the old USSR
Authoritarian system
An Authoritarian System of government is (3)
a sophisticated system of propaganda

a highly sophisticated secret police

ruthlessly pointing down decent
__________ system of government:

based on consent of the government
public opinion is going to be expressed through constituions, through elections and by the government ascertaining public opinion
power of governemnt responible and limited
decent is tolerated and encouraged
indiviudal rights are given special protections
democratic system
__________ a basic law or the fundamental law of the land
A constition does what
delegates power to government
establishes the structures of government
the constituion will establish the processes in which th epower of government will be exercised
a constituion will provide limitations on teh government
Is the U.S. Constituion rigid or flexible
An example fo a flexible constituion
state constituion
Define American System of Government
Define England System of Government
_________ are called liberals, proponents of the welfare state- the greatest good for the greatest number. Believe in the regulated economy. Stimulate and coordinate the ecoomy. They believe in private ownership of property
__________ has a number of elements. they believe in maxium freedom for individuals. Produce maximum goods and services. believe in natural lawas
_________ believes the instruments of production should be owened by the people. NO private property.
The effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning many functions to the states
devolution revolution
Constitutional arrangement whereby power is distributed between a central government and subdivisional governments, called states in the United States. The national and the subdivisional goverments both exercise direct authority over individuals
Powers specifically granted to one of the branches of the national government by the Constitution
express powers
powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions
implied powers
Clause of the Constituion (Article 1, section 8, clause 18) setting forth the implied powrs of Congress. It states the at Congress, in additon to its express powers has the right to make all lawas necessary and proper for carring out all powers vested by the Constituion in the national government
necessary and proper clause
the powers of the national government in the field of foreign affairs that the Supreme Court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants but rather grow out of the very existence of the national government
inherent powers
The clause in the Constitution (Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3( that gives Congress the power toregulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state other nations
commerce clause
a requirement imposed by the federal government as a condition for the receipt of federal funds
federal mandate
powers that the Constitution gives to both the national and state governments, such as the power to levy taxes
concurrent powers
Clause in the Constitution (Article IV, Section 1) requiring each state to recognize the civil judgements rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid
full faith and credit clause
Legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the official of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed
An agreement among two or more states. The Constitution requires tha tmost such agreements be approved by Congress
interstate compact
Constitutional doctrine that whenever conflict occurs between the constitutionally authorized actions of the national government and those of a state or local government, the actions of the federal government prevail.
national supremacy
The right of a federal law or regulation to preclude enforement of a state or local law or regulation
People who favor national action over action at the state and local levels
people who favor state or local action rather than national action
power expressly or implicitly reserved to the states and emphasized by decentralists
states' rights
Democratic and civic habits of discussion, compromise, and respect for differences, which grow out of participation in voluntary organizations.
social capital
the widely shared beliefs, values and normas concernting the relationship of citizens to government and to one another
political culture
The rights of all people to dignity and worth; also called human rights
natural rights
Widespred agreement on fundamental principles of democratic governance and the values that undergird them
democratic consensus
governance according to the expressed preferences of the majority
majority rule
a belief that ultimate power resides in the people
popular sovereignty
The widespred belief that the United States is a land of opportunity and that indivudal initiative and hard work can bring economic success
American dream
an aconomic system characterized by private property, competitive markers, economic incentives, and limited government involvment in the production and pricing of goods and services
Domination of an industry by a single company by fixing prices and discouraging competition; also the company that dominates the industry by these means
Federal laws (starting with the Sherman Act of 1890) that try to prvent a monopoly from dominating an industry and restraining trade
antitrust legislation
A Consistent pattern of beliefts abotu political values and the role of government
political ideology
a belief in the positive uses of government to brign about justice and equality of opportunity
A belief that limited governmetn ensures order, competitve markers, and personal opportunity
An economic and governmetnal system based on public ownership of the means of production and exchange
An ideology that is dominated by concern for the environment but also promotes grassroots democracy, social justice, equal opportunity, nonviolence, respect for diversity and feminism
An ideology that cherishes individual liberty an d insists on a sharply limited government, promoting a free market economy, a noninterventionist foreign policy, and an absence of regulation in the moral and social shpheres
Who secured the Mandate, a document, from Henry the 7th of England. Legal document. The legal claim ownership by the British was based on the law of discovery and conquest
John Cabot
What were the three types of colonial governments made by the British
royal,proprietary, charter colonies
Four important things that happened at this convention
Developed a Declaration of Rights
Call of the repeal of all from taxes from Britain
Call for a boycott for the importation and consumption of Brititish goods
Continental Association- this group would detect and blacklist people who were using British goods
Who secured the Mandate, a document, from Henry the 7th of England. Legal document. The legal claim ownership by the British was based on the law of discovery and conquest
John Cabot
What were the three types of colonial governments made by the British
royal,proprietary, charter colonies
Four important things that happened at this convention
Developed a Declaration of Rights
Call of the repeal of all from taxes from Britain
Call for a boycott for the importation and consumption of Brititish goods
Continental Association- this group would detect and blacklist people who were using British goods
America's first governmetn in power from May 10th, 1775- march 1st, 1781
2nd Continental Congress