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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Manhattan Project
US program to develop nuclear weapons in response to fear of German development.
Soviet satellite launched in 1957 that ended US's superiority. 1st and only time Soviets were ahead of the US technologically.
"Delicate Balance of Terror"
Fear of surprise attack and 1st strike advantage creates crisis instability.
The solution to mutual vulnerability; put weapons in places where they would survive an attack. 3 legs of nuclear arsenal (land, air, and sea).
Invulnerable retaliatory (second) strike
Nuclear weapons that cannot be destroyed in a preemptive attack, providing the ability to respond to any attack with a second (retaliatory) strike.
Mutual Assured Destruction (M.A.D.)
A stratergic reality and doctrine in which any use of nuclear weapons would inevitably entail one's own destruction. Achieved when each party possesses an invulnerable second-strike (retaliatory) capability.
Nuclear Abstainers
Nations with the economic and technological ability to build and maintain nuclear weapons who have chosen not to acquire them.
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
Agreement designed to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. Existing nuclear powers promised not to aid others in acquiring NW, and those without NW agreed not to build them. Only three nations have not signed the NPT--Israel, India, and Pakistan.
Extreme Proliferation Optimists
Believe that nuclear proliferation spreads peace and stability in all cases.
NW kept peace in past.
ND works and is easy.
Moderate Proliferation Optimists
Believes that nuclear proliferation spreads peace and stability under some circumstances.
NW kept peace in past.
ND works but successful deterrence is difficult.
Proliferation Pessimists
Believes that the risk of nuclear proliferation is always greater than the benefit.
NW not responsible for peace in past.
ND may reduce chance for war, but not to zero, and is very difficult.