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61 Cards in this Set

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What is the difference between radical and reactionary?
Radical- wants to change current situation according to ides of the future

Reactionary- wants to change current situation to idea of idealized past (react to past)
How do conservatives feel about the government?
They want a limited government, want to use it to limit behavior and actions. Not to make people better, people are unchangable.
What is traditional conservatism, neo-conservatism and the new right? What do they all tend to agree on?
New Right- care about social issues, abortion, seperation of church and state

Traditional- liberitarians, no state, high taxes

Neo- focused on the military

They all tend to agree about the importance of capitalism, religion...
What are alternative names for traditional consevatism, neo-conservatism, and the new right?
New Right- Social conservatism

Traditional- Fiscal conservatism

Neo- Military conservatism
Who was the most influencial figure within conservatism tradition?
Edmond Burke, Father of Modern Conservatism
This man was conservative about any change, he was resitance to it.
Frederick Hyatt (Hikes)
Name some aspects of neo-liberalism.
Want a strong, efficient military

They have more emphasis on negation, not force

They are fiscally conservative

(Bill Clinton)
Name some aspects of traditional liberalism.
They are for labor movements, unions, and the protection of workers rights
John Ralls says there is a 3rd component to liberalism and two different liberty principles. What are they?
1) Equality of oppurtunity, same access to protections of rights and power

2) If there's inequality, it must favor the least advantaged
The phrase shop til you drop fits appropriately with communism or capitalism?
Capitalism- it's consumer driven
What is the economic base?
It states that whatever economic system you have, whether it be feudalism or capitalism.
What is the ideoligical superstructure?
It is religion, art, politics, ideas. The ideas matter, not as important as concrete reality.
Why did Marx believe in progress?
The dialectic, there is always hope in progress. He believed in revolution, according to the diagram of the clash between the thesis and antithesis.

Ex. thesis- feudalism vs. capitalism- antithesis
Why would there be progress according to Marx?
Our history is a history of conflict, and this created progress in the past.

He assumed a flaw in the system and this would create a condition for change.
What was the flaw that Marx assumed in capitalism?
Capitalism created the working class, there are more workers than capitalists. He thought the workers would evernutally rise up and rebel, this was the flaw.
What was the Facist idea of Nationalism? (Nazi)
It was humanitarian vs. liberalism

The collective was now more important, the "blood and soil" was crucial

The blood is where they came from, it was based on a superior race

This specific race had pride and place over all others, they were more privileged

With the nazis, this group was the Aryans
Does conservatism and liberalism have different ideoligies?
NO
What are the different typies of conservatism and liberalism, where do they agree?
The neo-liberals and conservatists agree about fiscal conservatism.
What was the dictatorship prolitarian?
Workers have the power, they translate the phase between capitalism and communism

The workers take the power from the capitalists, they seize power

Marx said this transition was supposed to be brief
What are the parallels of fascism and conservatism?
Fascism- They believe in rationalism, they have a distrust of human beings, they believe humans have to be manipulated

Conservatists- They are skeptical of human reason, but it's the not the most important thing.

It's a matter of degree.
What is totalitarism?
It is the role over every aspect of life, the state infiltrates every state of your life

For example- the role of nazi women was to be quiet, look beautiful, and make perfect children
Why did liberal democracy support facists and nazi states?
Liberals were the enemies of communists, it's the idea that the enemy of my enemy is my friend

The facists were opposed to communism, so the liberals made alliances with the nazis
How did the nazis justify racism?
It was a pseudoscience of the perfect race, they would act like they had scientific proof and logic to justify to inferiority of other races

They claimed that jews were the cause of all problems in Germany, they were "scapegoated" as to have a lack of purity, therefore they were troublesome
John Stuart Milss contributed what to liberalism?
Freedom of thought, speech, and press
What was Marx's definiton of alienation?
It was to be disconnected from their own humanity, themselves, productive labor, and all of humanity.

In your working environment you would hate yourself, your job and others
What did Marx think about capitalism?
He believed it could be better, although it was the best economic system up to that point

He believed that history would go forward and better systems would evolve, but for the time it was the best
What was Lennons contribution to Marxism?
The Vanguard- ones who would guide or enforce the working class.

The intersts were no different between vanguard and the leadership principle

The vanguard spoke for the people, if they disagreed they would die
Why have a corporatist system?
The state is in control, the facists used this to create harmony, the workers won't protest

This ensures the power of the state and the leader

If there's harmony then there is a lack of conflict, no conflict must mean everyone is happy
What is the iron triangle?
Government on top

Labor unions in middle

Capitalists on bottom
Who were Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels?
Intellectual parents of Marxism, had two main strands of thought...

Centralized= communism
Decentralized= socialism
Why is Marxism still relevant?
The corporation as a legal person, profit motive, productivity, efficiency
What are the three components of the economic relationships basic to human lilfe?
Labor Theory of Value
Subsisitence wages
Surplus Value
Explain the economic base.
The economic structire or base greatly effects every other element of society, aso referred to as the mode of productions
Explain the family according to Engels.
The husband tells wife what to do
Wife acts as extension of husband
Stays home, not educated
What were the key concepts for Marx's Dialectic?
Thesis
Antithesis
Synthesis
Give an exapmple of the Dialectic.
Feudalism-Thesis
Serfs work land, give what they made to their lord

Antithesis
It's inefficient, property should encourage self-interest
What are the two class struggles?
Bourgeoisie
Proleteriat
Who was Vladimir Lenon?
Leader of the Bolshevik revoltuon, developed the Vanguard and conctributed to Marxism
Who was Mao Zedong?
Leader of the Chinese revolution, famous for developing guerilla warfare, required the support of the people
What are three treatments of conservatism and liberalism?
Attitudes toward change, human nature, and tradition

Specific positioins taken at specific times and places by identifiable ppl

Dif. histories in dif. countries
These people are resistance to change, have a reverance for tradition and a distrust of human reason, prefer individual freedom, reject the gov't to improve human condition.
Conservatism
This man is the founder of modern conservatism, said experience it more important than reason, and change would be made very slowly
Edmond Burke
This man was a economist and a social commentator who argued that conservatism is legitimate and necessary and an attitude of opposition to drastic change
Friedrich Hayek
This stems from John Stuart Mill and John Locke, Locke added ltd gov't and nat. rights as well as arguements for consent and majority rule, Mill adds freedom of thought and speech
Liberalism
These characteristics tend to favor change, they have faith in human reason, have a willingness to use govt to improve the human conidition, prefer ind. freedom, and have optimism about human nature
Liberalism
What are criteria for conservatives?
Social-traditional values
Fiscal-capitalism, ltd govt
Foreign pollicy, strong govt
This used to be the radical right in the 50s, mostly based on sociual issues, where George Bush fits
New Right
This favors ltd govt, contrasts with the new right, overlaps with some liberals
Traditional Conservatism
This is used by liberals, like Dick Cheney, believe in foreign policy and fiscal conservatice, mostly social liberal
Neoconservatism
All conservatice support...
Free mart capitilasim, strong military, and traditional values
What are some criteria for liberals?
Social- freedom of choice
Fiscal- higher taxes, larger govt role
Foreign policy- cooperation, peaceful resolution of conflict
This deals with fiscal conservatives and socail and foriegn policy liberals. The mainstream democtratic party lives here like Clinton, want a strong efficient military, realistic liberalism
Neoliberalism
This man was the most important contributor to the modern liberal theory

thought experiement --> the original position
John Rawls
What are the prinicples of social justice?
Liberty prinicple
Equality of opportunity principle
Who are the most well known founders of facism?
Hitler and Mussolini
What are the 7 concepts of the theoretical base?
Irrationalism
Social darwinism
nationalism
glorification of the state
leadership principle
racism
anticommunism
..... ..... states that life is a struggle for survival winthin and between species, this purifies the race.
Social Darwinism
This identifies with a culture or ethnic group, pride of place goes to a particular ethnicity, the group is everything- not the individual
Nationalism
This is the state as carrier of the culture and spirit of the people, the driving force the welds the people togetehr, the state as tool of the people
Glorification of the state
With this, each subordinate owes absolute obedience to his or her immediate superior, all the way to the Fuhrer- this will is the peoples will, it could do no wrong
The leadership principle
This is a govt that controls or attempts to control the totality of human life and completely cubordinates the individual to the state.
Totalitarinaism