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32 Cards in this Set

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Harlem Renaissance
-1930 Jazz-influenced poetry
-The creation of art and literature would serve to "uplift" the race.
-no uniting form singularly characterizing the art
that emerged out of the. Rather, it
encompassed a wide variety of cultural
elements and styles, including a Pan-Africanist
perspective.
"high-culture" and "low-culture" or "low-life," from the traditional form of music to the blues and jazz, traditional and new experimental forms in literature such as modernism and the
*new form of jazz poetry
new appreciation of folk roots and culture
Spontaneous poetry
Melody & rhythm
What were the significances of Harlem Renaissance?
-Blacks used art to prove their humanity and demand for equality

-led to more opportunities for blacks to be published by mainstream houses
What were the factors leading to the Harlem Renaissance?
Great Migration of African Americans to northern cities, which concentrated ambitious people in places where they could encourage each other, and the First World War, which had created new industrial work opportunities for tens of thousands of people.
What were the "school boy " poets?
Based on Eliot, but a reaction against Eliot
Auden
Based on Eliot, but a reaction against Eliot Concern for the Plebeian people with Eliot style
Upperclass Oxford, Cambridge
Deflated expectation
What is the "Crisis"?
a monthly journal of the NAACP employed Harlem Renaissance writers on their editorial staffs; published poetry and short stories by black writers; and promoted African-American literature through articles, reviews, and annual literary prizes.
Harlem Renaissance
-1930 Jazz-influenced poetry
-The creation of art and literature would serve to "uplift" the race.
-no uniting form singularly characterizing the art
that emerged out of the. Rather, it
encompassed a wide variety of cultural
elements and styles, including a Pan-Africanist
perspective.
"high-culture" and "low-culture" or "low-life," from the traditional form of music to the blues and jazz, traditional and new experimental forms in literature such as modernism and the
*new form of jazz poetry
new appreciation of folk roots and culture
Spontaneous poetry
Melody & rhythm
What were the significances of Harlem Renaissance?
-Blacks used art to prove their humanity and demand for equality

-led to more opportunities for blacks to be published by mainstream houses
What were the factors leading to the Harlem Renaissance?
Great Migration of African Americans to northern cities, which concentrated ambitious people in places where they could encourage each other, and the First World War, which had created new industrial work opportunities for tens of thousands of people.
What were the "school boy " poets?
Based on Eliot, but a reaction against Eliot
Auden
Based on Eliot, but a reaction against Eliot Concern for the Plebeian people with Eliot style
Upperclass Oxford, Cambridge
Deflated expectation
What is the "Crisis"?
a monthly journal of the NAACP employed Harlem Renaissance writers on their editorial staffs; published poetry and short stories by black writers; and promoted African-American literature through articles, reviews, and annual literary prizes.
Harlem Renaissance
-1930 Jazz-influenced poetry
-The creation of art and literature would serve to "uplift" the race.
-no uniting form singularly characterizing the art
that emerged out of the. Rather, it
encompassed a wide variety of cultural
elements and styles, including a Pan-Africanist
perspective.
"high-culture" and "low-culture" or "low-life," from the traditional form of music to the blues and jazz, traditional and new experimental forms in literature such as modernism and the
*new form of jazz poetry
new appreciation of folk roots and culture
Spontaneous poetry
Melody & rhythm
What were the significances of Harlem Renaissance?
-Blacks used art to prove their humanity and demand for equality

-led to more opportunities for blacks to be published by mainstream houses
What were the factors leading to the Harlem Renaissance?
Great Migration of African Americans to northern cities, which concentrated ambitious people in places where they could encourage each other, and the First World War, which had created new industrial work opportunities for tens of thousands of people.
What were the "school boy " poets?
Based on Eliot, but a reaction against Eliot
Auden
Based on Eliot, but a reaction against Eliot Concern for the Plebeian people with Eliot style
Upperclass Oxford, Cambridge
Deflated expectation
What is the "Crisis"?
a monthly journal of the NAACP employed Harlem Renaissance writers on their editorial staffs; published poetry and short stories by black writers; and promoted African-American literature through articles, reviews, and annual literary prizes.
New Critics poets
*objective approach to literature
(Admire Eliot, Emerson, Warren, and Brooks)

-notion of ambiguity
-formalist literary criticism
-developed in the 1920s-30s and
peaked in the 1940s-50s
-treat a work of literature as if it
were self-contained.
-do not consider the reader's
response, author's intention, or
historical and cultural contexts
-perform a close reading of the text, and believe the structure and
meaning of the text should not be
examined separately
-Appreciate the use of LITERARY DEVICES in a text
-Requires careful, exacting scrutiny
of the passage itself
-Formal elements such as RYHME, METER, SETTING, CHARACTERIZATION, and PLOT were used to identify the *theme* of the text
-used Paradox, Ambiguity, Irony, and Tension to help establish the single best *interpretation* of the text
~suggest the politics of suspicion and mistrust of authority~ one that persisted throughout the cold war years within New Criticism's popularity.
The Agrarians
-evolved from a Philosophical discussion group known as the "FUGITIVES"
-Many of the Southern Agrarians and Fugitive poets were connected to Vanderbilt University in Nashville, TN.
-Bemoaned the increasing loss of Southern identity and culture to industrialization
~They wanted to confront the widespread and rapidly increasing effects of modernity, urbanism, and industrialism on American (but especially Southern) culture and tradition.~
*Return to the more traditionally rural and local culture, and agrarian American values
-Enfolded New Criticism's emphasis on irony into their anti-authoritarianism and criticism of the emerging culture of spending, consumption, and progress
~Inspired Southern Renaissance
~Influenced by Ransom, Alan Tate
Stride around WWII
*Focus on IRONY, TENSION, PARADOX, and THEME
*Distant way of looking at things through irony
The Objectivists
*~*Intellectual imagists*~*
Treat poems as objects – <Zukofsky>
--Dismiss the idea of ----symbol----

-because they're working class
emphasize SINCERITY, INTELLIGENCE, and the poet's ABILITY to LOOK clearly at the world.
-Concerned with what was going on in front of them>>
-Finding meaning and depth within
small, everyday
words
-Omit the unnecessary
-Influenced by Ezra Pound and
William Carlos Williams
Postmodernism
..Break from 19th century realism...

Explored SUBJECTIVISM, turning from external reality to examine **inner states of consciousness**

--in many cases drawing on modernist examples in the stream of consciousness style--- by Virgina Woolf and James Joyce OR explorative poems like “The Waste Land” by Eliot

*Rejection of establishment in style
>>Playfulness becomes central and
the actual achievement of order
and meaning becomes unlikely
-No patience for trivial things
-Against New Critics
Influenced by >>Surrealism and pop poetry.

-Intellectually skeptical
-Morally concerned
-Spontaneous utterance
New York School
Informal group of American poets in the 1950s-1960s
*inspiration from SURREALISM and the CONTEMPORARY avant-garde art movement, in particular ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM

-A reaction against the ^^Confessionalist movement^^ in Contemporary poetry

{Subject Matter} light, violent, or
observational
New York School Poets
Ashberry,
O'Hara,
Koch Guest,
Berrigan
*O'Hara was at the center of the group before his death in 1966

-wrote in a direct, and
immediate, spontaneous
manner of writing
~~*Stream of consciousness writing, often using vivid, and visual imagery*~~
Confessional poets
Robert Lowell – founding father
focus> on the intimate ,
sometimes unflattering,
details of the poet's
personal life,( illness/
sexuality/despondence
~More personal, more autobiographical writing

Ginsberg, Plath, Sexton, Roethke

What defines poetry as confessional is not the subject matter, but how the issue represented is explored
explores personal details
about the authors' life
without meekness,
modesty, or discretion
*Because of this>>confessional poetry is a popular form of creative writing that many people enjoy not only to read but to embark upon

>>self-revelation achieved through creating the poem
>>dominant approach in late 20th-century American poetry

*!*!The reaction >>
sparked new movements
such as that of the
language poet and New
Formalism
*The Beats*
**famous in the 1950s**
~~~~~~~~
rejection of mainstream values---
experimentation with drugs---------alternate forms of sexuality------and an interest in Easter Religion

the rapidly expanding Beat culture underwent a TRANSFORMATION: gave way to the Sixties
Counterculture
-a spiritual yearning,
-using concepts and imagery
from Buddhism, Catholicism,
and Judaism

**SpONtAnEIty*** is crucial
-Open to more radical forms of literature
-Heavy focus on live performance

The BOP form of jazz
The major poets of "Beat" writing
Ginsberg, Burrough, and Kerouac
During the 1960s,
Influences of the "Beats"
Inspired by Dadaism – attack on the
elitism of high culture
and its celebration of
spontaneity

Surrealism –focus on revelations
from the subconscious
-reacting against
objective distancing
&the focus on craft
brought by Modernism
Spontaneous Bop Prosody
***John Kerouac***
From the Beat generation
-A major literary innovator
-method was to write as
spontaneously as possible

-"Don't revise" – he regarded revision as a form of lying.
"Say what you feel"
Inspired by jazz

~~Improvisation~~
Black Mountain poets
Levertov, Creeley, Duncan, etc.

(a group of mid 20th century American avant-garde or postmodern poets centered on Black Mountain College)

-One of the most fabled experimental institutions in art education and practice.

-remarkable number of the artists who spearheaded the avant-garde in the America of the 1960s

Called for a poetry of "open field"
- composition to replace
traditional closed poetic forms
with an improvised form that
should reflect exactly the
content of the poem.
This form was to be based on the LINE and each line was a UNIT of BREATH & of UTTERANCE

One of the effects of narrowing the unit of structure in the poem down to what could fit within an utterance was that the Black Mountain
poets developed a distinctive style of poetic diction (e.g. "yr" for "your")

-Strong interconnections with the Beats
Feminism
Anti-patriarchal
Hostile with men
----Saw pregnancy as a parasite relationship
----Focuses on women's ability to show and maintain their equality through their own actions and choices
----Believe that women can free themselves only when they have done away with what they consider an inherently oppressive and dominating patriarchal system
----Different movements and ideologies of feminism:
Liberal
Anarcha
Socialist and Marxist
Radical
Black
Postcolonial and Third-World
Multiracial
Libertarian
Standpoint
Post-structural and postmodern
Environmental
-----Second-wave feminism prompted a general reevaluation of women's historical contributions, and various academic sub-disciplines, such as Women's history and women's writing, developed in response to the belief that women's lives and contributions have been underrepresented as areas of scholarly interest
------Project of reclamation
-various presses began the task of reissuing long-out-of-print texts
------Rediscovery and reclamation of texts written by women 
New Formalism
-late-20th and early 21 century movement in American poetry that has promoted a return to METRICAL and RHYMED verse

--The term 'New Formalism' was first used in the article 'The Yuppie Poet”
__A movement returning to traditional poetic forms__
-Accused not only of political conservatism but also yuppie materialism
----A reaction against various perceived deficiencies in the practice of contemporary poets--

During the 1960s, with a surge of interest in Confessional poetry, publication of formal poetry became increasingly unfashionable
---Anti free verse, Anti-confessional
---Back to New Criticism

-Simultaneous with the emergence of language poetry in the 70s
By the end of the 20th century, poems in traditional forms were once again being published more widely

Tate & Ransom
Language poetry
-group that emerged in the late 1960s and early 1970s
-Took as their starting point the emphasis on method evident in the modernist tradition, particularly as represented by Stein and Rukofsky
- is also an example of poetic POSTMODERNISM
-Its immediate postmodern precursors were the New American poets, the NY school, the Objectivist poets, the Black Mtn School, the Beats, and the SF Renaissance

-Actively challenged the “natural” presence of a speaker behind the text
-Writing that emphasized
DISJUNCTION other nontraditional and usually NON-NARRITIVE forms

-emphasizes the reader's role in bringing meaning out of a work
Left politically
New Narrative
The movement was founded by **Robert Glück and Bruce Boone** two poets living in San Francisco in the late 1970s as a reaction and growth from the Language poets

--many gay and lesbian authors, & the works were greatly influenced by the AIDS epidemic in the 80s--

-focus on experimenting with the narrative using
FRAGMENTED STORIES, META TEXT, and other techniques that are TRADITIONALLY POETIC

Goal--*
Combine a representation of the author as theory-based----------
with a representation of the author of a particular identity------------without alienating any certain demographic of readers
*****The author acknowledges being a physical being and confronts sexuality directly******
& creates a dialogue between themselves and the readers by directly addressing and engaging the reader.
&
situates themselves in time and space by including pop culture references
&
make emotions and the experience of the body
&
celebrate the idea of experimenting with PROSE as a *community* of writers rather than as --individuals--

-Agreed with the Language Poets' ideas of transforming narrative structure, but they thought language poetry lacked "fun"
Christian Poetry
Any poetry that contains Christian teachings, themes, or references
--directly reference the Bible, while others provide allegory--
The earliest Christian poetry, in fact, appears in the New Testament
Within the world of classical antiquity, Christian poets often struggled with their relationship to the existing traditions of Greek and Latin poetry, which were of course heavily influenced by paganism
In many European vernacular literatures, Christian poetry appears among the earliest monuments of those literatures

-Modern Christian poetry especially suffers from a difficulty of definition
-A number of modern writers are
widely considered to have
Christian themes in much of
their poetry, including Blake and
Eliot

*A revival of Transcendentalism*