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51 Cards in this Set

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Sestina
six 6-line stanzas. The last words are repeated in a defined sequence: 123456; 615243; 364125; 532614; 451362; 246531, plus a three-line envoy. Envoy 531, but buried in each line are 2, 4, and 6.
Slant rhyme
(sometimes called half rhyme)
a kind of end rhyme in which the consonants are the same but the vowels are different (e.g. bat/boat)
Speaker
the voice we hear in the poem--the voice may be that of the poet as poet
Persona
a fictional character through which the poet speaks
Symbol
an object, person, place, or action that has a meaning in itself and also stands for something other than itself, such as a quality, an attitude, a belief, or a value. Often the symbol is concrete and what it represents is abstract or intangible.
Tone
the speaker's attitude toward the subject
Allusion
a reference to another event, person, book or work of art
Verbal Irony
the contrast between what is stated and what is meant
Dramatic Irony
the contrast between what a character knows and the audience knows
Situational Irony
the contrast between what is expected to happen and what actually happens
Onomatopoeia
use of a word whose sound suggests its meaning (e.g. woof, boom)
Rhyme
repetition of sounds in a kind of pattern
Alliteration
repetition of the same sound at the beginnings of words in a line
End rhyme
rhyme occurring at the end of lines
Eye rhyme
words that are spelled the same but sound different (e.g. bough/tough)
Rhyme Scheme
the pattern of rhymes, usually at the ends of lines, designated by letters of the alphabet (e.g. the standard sonnet has a rhyme scheme of abab, cdcd, efef, gg)
Meter
a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables within a line
Foot
the basic unit of rhyme, usually repeated several times within a line
Iamb
(iambic)
an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable
Trochee
(trochaic)
a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable
Anapest
(anapestic)
two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable
Dactyl
(dactylic)
a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables
Spondee
(spondaic)
two stressed syllables (seldom found in more than one foot)
Scansion
(to scan a poem)
dividing lines into feet by marking stressed and counting syllables to determine the pattern
monometer
one foot
dimeter
two feet
trimeter
three feet
tetrameter
four feet
pentameter
five feet
hexameter
six feet
heptameter
seven feet
octameter
eight feet
Enjambment
continuation of a sentence from one line of a poem to the next without punctuation; do not pause at the end of such a line as you read a poem
Caesura
a light break or pause within a line, often marked with punctuation
Image
the representation in words of something we experience through any of our five senses. An image is almost always part of a metaphor.
Similie
a comparison of two dissimilar things using like or as
Metaphor
a direct comparison of two dissimilar things without using like or as
Personification
giving personality or other human qualities to an animal, an object, a natural force, or an idea
Verse
a single line of poetry
Stanza
a group of lines within a poem
Couplet
two consecutive rhyming lines
Triplet
three consecutive rhyming lines
Quatrain
a stanza of four lines within a poem, or a group of four lines unified by rhymes
Sestet
a stanza of six lines, or a group of lines unified by rhymes
Octave
a stanza of eight lines, or a group of eight lines unified by rhymes
Dramatic Monologue
a poem in which one character speaks, typically to one or more other characters present, often revealing his or her personality through a reaction to a crucial incident
Internal Monologue
the character thinks rather than speaks the words; there may be no one else present
Sonnet
traditionally, 14 lines of rhymed iambic pentameter
English Sonnet
sonnet divided into three quatrains and a couplet. Typically asks a question or poses a problem in the quatrains, then provides an answer or resolution in the couplet. In modern poetry, the traditional rhyme schemes may not be present, and the poem may end without answering the question or resolving the problem.
Italian Sonnet
sonnet divided into an octave and a sestet. Typically asks a question or poses a problem in the octave, then provides an answer or resolution in the sestet. In modern poetry, the traditional rhyme schemes may not be present, and the poem may end without answering the question or resolving the problem.
Pindaric Ode
an ode divided into a traditional three part structure: strophe, in which the subject moves in one direction; antistrophe, a turn, or change in direction or attitude; epode, in which the poem arrives at a resolution or stasis (e.g. Frost's "Directive")