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98 Cards in this Set

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self-tissue transplanted from one body site to another?
autograph
tissue transferred between genetically identical members of the same species?
isograft
tissue transferred between genetically different members of the same species?
allograft
tissue transferred between different species
xenograft
Describe the cells involved in transplant rejection and their functions in the rejection?
1. TH1 cells recognize foreign MHC and activate CD8 cytotoxic cells
2. CD8 cytotoxic cells kill transplanted cells
what is an early sign of transplant rejections that is marked by the collecting of T cells (70%), B cells (20%), and macrophages (10%) at blood vessels entering the tranplant
perivascular cuffing
T or F, second exposure of the recipient to donor antigens elicits a less severe response because the recipient T cells are primed?
F, priming elicits a much more rapid response
what mediates hyperacute rejection of a transplant?
antibodies against donor antigens (mainly ABO blood group antigens)
what leads to the chronic/late rejection of a transplant?
thickening and eventual abliteration of endovascular epithelium in the graft
what two factors may contribute to the thickening of endovascular tissue in transplanted tissue during late rejection?
immune complex disease or T cell mediated inflammation
what are the 3 types of antigens responsible for most allograft rejection?
1. MHC I
2. MHC II
3. ABO blood groups
what are the top 3 antigens that are most important to match between donor and recipient?
1. HLA-A
2. HLA-B
3. HLA-DR
what is responsible for chronic tranplant rejection?
anti-HLA antibodies created through the indiret pathway of allorecognition
which immunosupressive drug used during transplantation blocks the S phase of developing immune cells?
Azathioprine (Imuran)
which immunosupressive drug used during transplantation inserts into the DNA helix and becomes crosslinked blocking DNA synthesis??
Cyclophosphamide-alkylating agent
which immunosupressive drugs used during transplantation acts as folic acid antagonist to block purine biosynthesis?
Methotrexate
what prodrug is an anti-inflammatory agent that exerts control at many levels of the immune response and added to a mitotic inhibitor can prevent acute graft rejection?
Prednisone
what are the inhibitors of T cell activation used for immunosupression with tranplants?
1. cyclosporin A and tacrolimus
2. rapamycin
what drugs inhibit T cell activation by interfering with the serine/threonine phosphatase CALCINEURIN?
Cyclosporin A and tacrolimus
the primary cause of allograft rejection of transplanted tissue is?
MHC polymorphism
what is the effect of monoclonal antibodies against human CD3?
inactivates T cells
what limits the use of mouse monoclonal antibodies as immunosuppresive agents for humans?
immunogenicity of the mouse proteins to humans
what type of antibodies are those against blood types?
IgM
Describe the importance of the ABO blood type of the recipient of a bone marrow transplant?
not important because recipient bone marrow now regulates the blood type of the tissues blood reaches
cancers of the bodies epithelial cells are called?
carcinomas
cancers of cell types other than epithelial cells are called?
sacromas
cancers of immune cells involving circulating cells are called?
leukemias
cancers of the immune cells involving solid lymphoid tumors are called?
lymphomas
cancers of immune system involving bone marrow cells are called?
myelomas
T or F, the reason cancerous cells are able to survive to become tumors is because CD8 T cells do not recognize them?
T in the body, F in the lab = still not sure exactly which CD8 T cells do not kill tumors easily
what is the term applied to antigens present on tumor cells, but not on normal cells?
tumor-specific antigen
what is the term describing antigens expressed on tumor cells, but can be found on certain normal cells also?
tumor-associated antigens
what are 3 ways that cancerous cells produce tumor-cell specific antigens?
1. mutated protein peptides on MHC I molecules
2. Embryonic gene product peptides presented on MHC I molecules
3. too much of one protein expressed on MHC I molecules
NK cell recognize tumor cells how?
lack of class I MHC antigens on cell surface
cytotoxic T cells recognize tumor cells how?
tumor antigens presented on MHC class I molecules
what is the preferred treatment for a patient with a blood cell cancer?
allogeneic transplant
T or F, minor histocompatibility antigens are or minor importance in transplants?
F, lead to graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD)
what are polymophic proteins other than class I or II HLA molecules called?
minor histocompatibility antigens
while some GVHD can be bad, what is a good consequence?
may help engraftment and prevent relapse of malignant disease because T cells can still attack donor cells which become malignant (graft-versus-leukemia)
transplants from parents or siblings (50% will share haplotype) is called?
haploidentical transplant
in order to succesfully get a hematopoietic cell transplant, what steps must be taken for the donor?
completely rid body of mature T cells with antibody against T cells
in order to prevent a hematopoietic cell transplant from attacking recipient tissues, what must be done to the transplant?
it must be rid of all mature T cells so that maturation of T cells occurs in the thymus and all T cells will be trained not react with self antigens
when the immune system reconstitutes after a hematopoietic transplant, what allows for GVL to occur?
NK cells are still alloreactive this can attack cells with malignancies preventing leukemic relapses
why can NK cells be alloreactive with acute myelogenous leukemia, but not with acute lymphocytic leukemia?
AML has LFA-1 which allows for NK binding which ALL does not
do NK cell remain alloreactive forever after transplants?
no only about 4 months, then they are trained to accept donor tissue
how do tumors escape form the immune response?
they loose HLA class I expression
how do human epithelial tumors inhibit NK cells?
the produce ligands for the NKG2D receptor on NK cells which when triggered inactivates the NK cells
how can antigens from tumors lacking MHC class I molecules be presented to T cells?
as the tumor cells die, they are taken up by professional APC's and their components are displayed for T cells on both class I and II MHC molecules
how can monoclonal antibodies be used to diagnose cancer?
they are linked with radiolabeled antibody and when they attach to the cancer cells the mark the position of the cancer
how can monoclonal antibodies be used to treat cancer?
radionuclide or toxin can be bound to antibody and when antibody binds to tumor cell the toxin or radionuclide will kill the cells
what is a white blood cell that is stimulated in a laboratory to kill tumor cells?
a lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell
believed to represent the immune reaction/response to melanoma cells?
tumor inflitrating lymphocytes (TILs)
what are two ways to boost the immune system to fight tumors?
1. LAK cells
2. IL-2 increases T cells
what are the 4 viruses that have been associated with human cancers?
Hep, B, Hep C, HPV, and Epstein-Barr viruses
what is the name of a monoclonal antibody used to diagnose cancers?
carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
what are the two ways in which APCs take up tumor antigens from tumor cells?
1. as soluble complexes
2. as membrane vesicles shed from dying tumor cells
the Philadelphia chromosome is associated with which type of cancer?
chronic myelogenous leukemia
anemia, thrombocytopenia, and loss of normally functioning leukocytes is characteristic of which type of cancer?
chronic myelogenous leukemia
which antibody is used to isolate stem cells from bone marrow?
CD34 monoclonal antibodies
what is one of the least likely tissue transplants to cause graft vs. host reaction?
kidney
what type of autoimmune disease is thise?

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
2
what type of autoimmune disease is this?

Goodpasture's syndrome
2
what type of autoimmune disease is this?

Acute rheumatic fever
2
what type of autoimmune disease is this?

Grave's disease
2
what type of autoimmune disease is thise?

Myasthenia gravis
2
what type of autoimmune disease is thise?

Insulin-resistant diabetes
2
what type of autoimmune disease is this?

Hypoglycemia
2
what type of autoimmune disease is this?

Systemic lupus erythematosus
3
what type of autoimmune disease is thise?

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
4
what type of autoimmune disease is this?

Rheumatoid arthritis
4
what type of autoimmune disease is thise?

Multiple sclerosis
4
what type of autoimmune disease is thise?

Celiac disease
4
what are the 4 causes of autoimmune hemolytic anemia?
1. FcR+ cells in spleen
2. Compliment activation & CR1+ cells in spleen
3. intravascular compliment activation
4. shearing effect of RBC's in small capillaries once coated with antibody
what causes Goodpasture's disease?
autoantibodies that react with type IV collagen in the basement membrane of the kidney glomeruli
autoimmune disease of the adrenal glands is called what?
Addison's disease
What is Grave's disease?
an autoimmune disease of the thyroid
what is Hashimoto's thyroiditis?
an autoimmune disease of the thyroid
what is the autoimmune disease in which autoimmune antibodies cause the overproduction of thyroid hormones?
Grave's disease
is it possible to transfer autoimmune diseases to babies by pregnant women?
yes, but only the autoantibodies are transferred so if no permanent damage has been done the antibodies can be removed, curing the disease
deposition of immune complexes in the kidney glomeruli is seen in what autoimmune disorder?
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
describe the cutaneous finding of SLE?
a butterfy rash on the face
what is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis?
anti-TNFalpha
what is the disease in which autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptors are made?
myasthenia gravis
what are the 4 autoimmune diseases which are the product of autoimmune antibodies binding to cell surface receptors?
1. Grave's disease
2. Myasthenia gravis
3. Insulin-resistant diabetes
4. Hypoglycemia
what is established by deletion of lymphocytes possessing receptors that react with antigens in the primary lymphoid organs (thymus or bone marrow)?
Central tolerance
what is established by the deleting and rednering anergic lymphocytes possessing receptors to self antigens in secondary lymphoid tissue?
peripheral tolerance
what regulates autoreactive cells in circulation?
peripheral tolerance
what causes B cells which have been rendered anergic to undergo apoptosis?
interaction with the Fas ligand contained on the cell surface of CD4 T cells
what does AIRE regulate?
presentation of peripheral tissue self antigens on thymic medullary epithelial cells which links it to central tolerance
what is the disease caused by AIRE deficiency?
autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy
dystophic nails are common findings in a person with which autoimmune disease?
APECED
a patient with serum antibodies which react with neutrophil cyoplasmic granules suffers from which autoimmune disease?
Wegener's granulomatosis
thymocytes with intermediate affinity receptors for self antigen in the thymus become what kind of T cells?
Treg cells(CD4+, CD25+)
what is the name of the protein that causes the transformation to Treg cells during thymocyte positive selection?
Foxp3
what do Treg cells secrete?
1. IL-10
2. TGF-beta (allows for IgA switching)
how can Treg cells help in autoimmune disorders?
if the bind to the same APC as the autoimmune T cell, they suppress the activation of the T cell
HLA types correlate to susceptibility for what autoimmune disease?
IDDM
which MHC class type is most associated with autoimmune diseases?
Type II variants