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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
individual peripheral nerve fibers consists of 1) _____ 2) ______ 3) ____
1. an axon
2. neurolemma (sheath of Schwann)
3. endoneurial CT (endoneurium)
vasa nervosum are
vessels embedded in nerve fibers
epineurium ensheaths
peripheral nerve fascicles, vasa nervosum, fatty tissue, and lymphatics
a specific area of body wall, the dermatome is innervated by

a specific muscle mass, the myotome is innervated by
dorsal (posterior root): somatic afferent fibers

ventral (anterior) root: _______
somatic efferent fibers
dorsal and ventral ramus are functionally mixed, meaning
have afferent and efferent roots
ventral anterior primary ramus supplies
the anterolateral body wall, hypaxial muscles and the extremities
dorsal (posterior) primary ramus supplies
the skin of the back and posterior scalp, facet joints, posterior ligaments of the spine and epaxial (intrinsic back) muscles
GSE are somatic efferent fibers
GSA are ______
somatic afferent fibers
somatomotor fibers (GSE) stimulate what?
voluntary and reflex contraction of skeletal muscles
somatosensory fibers (GSA) transmit information to CNS concerning:
1) touch, pain, pressure & temperature
2) proprioception form muscles, tendons and joints
in somaticnervous system, how many neuron is/are btw the CNS and skeletal muscles or sensory receptors, innervated by GSE or GSA fibers respectively
skin of face and anterior scalp are innervated by _____
skin in the body, the dermatome, are innervated by _____

GSA of spinal nerves
loss of a single spinal nerve or dorsal root does not produce anesthesia b/c
dermatomes overlap
what kind of nerves carry information from ________ (aka cutaneuous receptors) in the skin to the CNS
cutaneuous nerves

exteroceptors include 3 types
mechanoreceptos, thermoreceptor, nociceptors
exteroceptors are continuous with peripheral processes of _________ neurons whose cell bodies are located in __________ ganglia
psudounipolar sensory neurons

dorsal root (spinal) ganglia
dorsal root (spinal) ganglia is located in
intervertebral foramen, just proximal to the mixed spinal nerve
are there any synapse at the dorsal root of ganglia?
central process of the pseudounipolar sensory neurons continue to _______ in the spinal cord
dorsal horn of spinal gray
contraction of skeletal muscle is a direct result of stimulus by what types of neurons, and most of these are ______ neurons
lower motor neurons

alpha motor neurons
lower motor neurons are located where?
either brainstem or spinal cord
alpha motor neurons stimulate what?
skeletal muscles
inputs from exteroceptors and proprioceptos are segregated ______ in the dorsal horn of spinal gray.
ventral roots convey axons of _________ neurons, whose cell bodies are located ______ of the spinal gray
lower motor neurons

ventral horns of spinal gray
how are lower motor neurons organized
lower motor neurons located _________ give rise to axons found in 9 of the 12 pairs of CN
brains stems nuclei
a motor unit is
a lower motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers which it supplies
each muscle fiber is innervated by a single _______
alpha motor neuron
peripheral nerve injuries are divided into 2 types:
irritative and destructive
irritative is reversible or irreversible?
how about destructive
irritative - reversible
destructive - irreversible
cause of irritative and destructive pheripheral nerve injuries.
irritative caused by acute or chronic mechanical trauma or inflammation.

destructive is caused by trauma (cutting) or neuropathy
if sensory fibers are stimulated in irritative peripheral nerve injuries what results? how abound destructive
pain or parasthesia (altered sensation) result - irritative.

anesthesia or hypoesthesia (diminished sensation) result - destructive
if motor fibers are stimulated in irritative peripheral nerve injuries what result? how about destructive?
spasm or twitching result from irritative

paralysis or paresis (weakness) result from destructive
visceral nervous system supply viscera (internal organs) and are divided into 2 components:
motor (GVE) components
sensory (GVA) components
GVE, motor components control, regulate, innervate what?
control smooth muscle contraction
regulates glandular secretion
innervate cardiac muscle
motor (GVE) components form voluntary or autonomic nervous system?
autonomic nervous system
sensory (GVA) components convey what
convey normally vague and poorly localized organic pain (hard to pin point) and visceral sensations. also convey info related to visceral reflexes.
referred pain sensation from visceral is reflected on
distribution of sympathetic and parasympathetic
sympathetic - widely distributed except to avascular tissues

parasympathetic - restricted distribition to head, viscera of trunk, erectile tissue
how many neurons do viceral nervous system have?
2 neuron rule
the first neuron of viceral nervous system is located where?
in the CNS
sympathetic nervous system, the preganglionic axon is long or short?
how about preganglionic axon of parasympathetic nervous system?
preganglionic axons of:
sympathetic - short
parasympathetic - long
postganglionic neurons of sympathetic nervous system are usually located _______ or ________ ganglion
paravertebral or prevertebral ganglion relatively near the CNS
postganglionic neurons of parasympathetic nervous system are usually located in a ganglion __________
on or in the walls of the target organs
what's chemical released at the postganglionic terminal of sympathetic? the postganglionic terminal of sympathetic is also called?

adrenergic ending
what's chemical released at the postganglionic terminal of parasympathetic? the postganglionic terminal of parasympathetic is also called?

chlinergic ending
the target organ of are usually dually innervated by para and sympathetic system?
the preganglionic neuron cell bodies of parasympathetics are located where? (2 places)
brain stem nuclei
the ventral horn of the S2 - S4 spinal cord segment
preganglionic parasympathetic axons leave the brain stem in 4 CN's, they are?
preganglionic axons of parasympathetic div. leaving spinal cord in the ventral roots of the S2 - S4 spinal nerve form what nerves
pelvic splanchnic nerves
pelvic splanchnic nerve provide what kind of innervation to what organs (3)?
parasympathetic innervation to lower GI, pelvic and perineal organs
parasympathetic div is also called
craniosacral system
visceral afferent fibers in additional to convey sensation of visceral pain, the fibers also convey physiologic sensation arising from ________ and _____
mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors
mechanoreceptors innervated by visceral afferent fibers respond to
distention in the walls of GI tract, respiratory structures, and the urinary bladder as well as baroreceptor in arteries
chemoreceptors responds to changes in (3)
1. partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in the blood
2. blood pH
3. the concentration of H+ in the stomach
the preganglionic neuron cell bodies of sympathetic div. are located in
intermediolateral horns of the T1-L2 segment of spinal cord
the preganglionic sympathetic axons leave the spinal cord in the ______ roots of the _________, then exit the ______ canal. the Axons head for bilateral chains of interconnected ganglia called _____.
ventral roots of the T1-L2 spinal nerves

vertebral canal

the sympathetic trunk
sympathetic div is also called
thoracolumbar system
sympathetic trunks lie _________ along each side of _____, extending from the _______ to _____.
lie in the paravertebral gutters


base of the skull to coccyx
ganglia in the sympathetic trunk (chain) are called
paravertebral ganglia
after transversing their intervertebral foramina, the T1-L2 spinal nerves send _______ to the sympathetic chain via ________.
preganglionic sympathetics

white rami communicantes
4 fates of preganglionic sympathetic reaching the sympathetic chains via the white rami:
1. synapse @ the nearest ganglion
2. synapse @ a more superior ganglion
3. synapse @ a more inferior ganglion
4. pass thru the chain w/o synapsing
after synapsing in the chain, postganglionic sympathetics rejoin spinal nerves via _______ for distribution to the body wall
gray rami comminucantes
gray of rami commuunicants convey _________ fibers back to the spinal nerve
postganglionic sympathetic fibers
ALL spinal nerves will receive some ________fibers via ____ rami communicantes
post ganglionic sympathetic fibers
gray rami communicantes
body wall structure that receive sympathetic innervation are (3)
sweat glands
arrectores pili
vascular smooth muscle
vascular smooth muscle, sympathetic stimuli induces ____________ except what arteries?

coronary arteries
white and gray rami are both associated with what ____ nerves only
T1-L2 spinal nerves only
gray rami are found with all _______.
spinal nerves
postganglionic axons arising from _______ ganglia will leave the sympathetic chains and form a ________ on the ____ arteries and their branches to reach cranial and cervical viscera.
cervical ganglia
periarterial plexus on the carotid arteries
interruption of periarterial plexus will produces __________.
ipsilateral Horner's Syndrome
Horner's syndrome include:
ptosis, miosis and anhidrosis (no sweating)
some postganglionic fibers arising in the _____ and ____ganglia will leave the chain as ________ branches to cervical and thoracic viscera (e.g. heart, lungs, and esophagus)
cervical and upper thoracic ganglia

direct visceral branches
the direct visceral branches also convey _____ fibers from viscera to cervical and upper thoracic spinal nerves via the ___________. These pain afferent s may stimulate ______ fibers in the dorsal roots of these spinal nerve and produce ________ in the body wall or extremities.
GVA fibers
white communicating rami
GSA fibers
referred pain
bundles of preganglionic sympathetic axons which exit the chain w/o synapsing are called _______. These fibers will synapse in _____________ ganglia located anterior to _______.
splachnic nerve
collateral or prevertebral ganglia located anterior to the abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries
thoracic splanchnic nerves contain ________ fibers destined for ______
preganglionic sympathetic fibers

thoracic splanchnic nerves pierce _______ and seek synapse on neurons in _________. a limited number pass thru these ganglia and synapse in the ________. _________ fibers arising from the _________ reach their visceral targets by forming __________ along arteries, arising from the __________. Upon reaching the GI tract, these __________ fibers contribute to formation of _________ system w/i the walls of GI structures from esophagus to anal canal.
preaortic (prevertebral) ganglia
postganglionic sympathetic fibers
prevertebral ganglia
periarterial plexus
abdominal aorta
postganglionic synpathetic fibers
enteric nervous system
enteric nervous system functions in GI structures
facilitate contraction of smooth muscle sphinters and inhibit both peristalsis and inhibit both peristalsis and glandular secretion
in the abdomen and pelvis, __________ accompanying sympathetic nerves also transmit pain from _______ and ________.
visceral afferents
strong concetrations of smooth muscle
nociceptors and strong contraction of smooth muscles in abdomen and pelvis tramsmit what kind of pain?
niciceptors stimulated by excessive distension of a part of GI tract or bladder.
strong contractions of smooth muscle in the wall of visceral structure as uterus.
splanchnics convey pain via the _____ fibers from viscera to the _________ of spinal nerves _______ via the __________ rami. These pain afferents may stimulate ____ fibers in the dorsal roots of these nerves and produce abdominopelvic "__________".
GVA fibers
dorsal roots
white communicating rami
GSA fibers
"referred pain"
pain from abdominopelvic viscera is referred to _________
specific regions of body wall.
SSA convey what kind of information? CN that carry it?
info related to those special senses which relate the body to the external environment.
CN VIII: vision - from retina, sound - from cochlea, equilibrium - from labyrinth of the inner ear.
SVA convey what kind of info?
information related to those special senses associated with ingestion of food: smell, taste
SVE innervate skeletal muscles derived from? the CN?
derived from the pharyngeal arches: V, VII, IX, X