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165 Cards in this Set

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Pneumonic name for cranial nerves
On Occasion Our Trusty Truck Acts Funny, Very Good Vehicle Any How!
What is Cranial Nerve I
Olfactory Nerve

sensory nerve for smell
What is Cranial Nerve II
Optic Nerve

sensory nerve of vision
What is Cranial Nerve III
Oculomotor Nerve

motor - eye mover for 4 of 6 entrinsic eye muscles that moves the eye in the orbit

(inferior oblique, superior, inferior and medial rectus muscles)
What is Cranial Nerve IV
Trochlear

motor "name means pulley" extrinsic eye muscle
What is Cranial Nerve V
Trigeminal

three branches from the largest of the cranial nerves

motor to the chewing musles
sensory fibers to the face
What is Cranial Nerve VI
Abducens Nerve

motor to extrinsic eye muscle that turns it laterally
ab
What is Cranial Nerve VII
Facial nerves

both motor and sensory

motor to muscles of facial expression
sensory from part of tongue
What is Cranial Nerve VIII
Vestibulocochlear Nerves

sensory nerve for hearing and balance
What is Cranial Nerve IX
Glossopharyngeal

both motor to pharyngeal muscle and sensory from part of tongue
What is Cranial Nerve X
Vagus

Only cranial nerve that extends beyond head and neck region

both

motor to the heart, lungs, and abdominal visceral organs; sensory from the thorasic & abdominal viscera, aortic arch, carotid and aortic bodies, taste buds of toungue and pharnyx
What is Cranial Nerve XI
Accesory

motor to trapezuis & sternocleidomastoid neck muscles
What is Cranial Nerve XII
Hypoglossal

motor to tongue muscles
Pneumonic name for cramial nerve functions
Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Believes Bad Boys Marry Money!
Which nervous system includes all neural structures outside the brain and spinal cord?
peripheral nervous system
How many spinal nerves are there?
31
Perineurium
Groups of fibers bound into bundles or fascicles by a coarser connective tissue wrapping
Endoneurium
it surrounds each axon within a nerve
Epineurium
All the fascicles are enclosed by a tough fibrous sheath
_________ are collections of neuron cell bodies associated with nerves in the PNS
ganglia
Fascicles
groups of fibers that are bound into bundles
The spinal nerve contains the fibers of the ______ and _____ neurons.
1) Sensory 2) Motor
The ganglion contains the cell bodies of the _____ nerves.
Sensory
The gray matter contains the cell bodies of the _____ nerves.
Motor
Name the 5 Stimulus Types of Sensory Receptors
1) Mechanoreceptors
2) Thermoreceptors
3) Photoreceptors
4) Chemoreceptors
5) Nociceptors
Each plexus gives rise to new combinations of fibers as the _____.
Peripheral Nerves
Lumbar Plexus includes
Genitofermoral, Obturator, and femoral
Sacrul Plexus includes
Gluteal nerves, Sciatic nerve
Subdural Space
Space between the arachnoid mater and the dura mater
Genitofermoral
Nerves to the exernal genitallia
Gluteal nerves (superior and inferior)
Superior innervates the gluteus medius and minimus, inferior innervates the gluteus maximus
Obturator
Nerves to the adductor muscles
Fermoral
Innervates the skin and muscles of upper thigh, including the quadriceps
Extrapyramidal tracts
Rubrospinal, Vestibulospinal (etc) - muscle tone and balance
Spinothalmic Tract
Spinal cord to thalmus and cerebral cortex - pain, temperature, crude touch, and pressure
Largest of the nerve bundles of the lumbar plexus
Femoral
Cervical Plexus
The phrenic nerve travels through the thorax to innervate the diaphram.
____ innervates the diaphragm?
Phrenic nerve
Brachail Plexus includes:
Axillery nerve, Musculocutaneous nerve, Radial nerve, Median nerve, Ulnar nerve
Axillary nerve
Innervates the deltoid muscle and shoulder along the posterior aspect of the upper arm.
Musculocutaneous nerve
Innervates anterior skin of upper arm and elbow flexors.
Radial nerve
Innervates dorsal aspect of the arm and extensors of the elbow, wrist, and fingers, abduction of thumb.
Median nerve
Innervates the middle elbow, wrist, and finger flexors, adducts the thumb.
Ulnar nerve
Innervates the medical aspect wrist and fingers flexors.
The spinal cord ends at _____?
Second lumbar vertebra
Referred pain
Caused when the sensory fibers from an internal organ enter the spinal cord in the same root as fibers from a dermatome. The brain is poor at interpreting visceral pain and interprets as it as pain. (somatic area of the dermatome)
A _____ is an interconnection of fibers which form new combinations.
Plexus
What are the 4 voluntary plexuses?
Cervical plexus, brfachial plexus, lumbar plexus, and sacral plexus
At _____ places along the spinal cord the dorsal and ventral roots come together to form _____.
31 Spinal Nerves
Spinal nerves contain both _____ and _____ fibers, as do most nerves.
Sensory Motor
There are 8 _____, 12 _____, 5 _____, 5 _____, and 1 _____ nerves.
Cervical Thorasic Lumbar Sacral Coccygeal
Nerve C1 arises between the _____ and _____ (1st cervical vertebra) and C8 arises between the 7th _____ and 1st ______ vertebra.
Cranium Atlas Cervical Thoracic
The spinal cord is?
The connection center for the reflexes as well as the afferent(sensory) and efferent(motor) pathways for the body below the neck.
The spinal cord begins _____ and ends _____?
Brainstem Second lumbar vertabra
Sensory neurons have their cell bodies in the ____ of the spinal cord.
Spinal (dorsal root) ganglion
Regeneration of PNS fibers depends on?
•Damage must be far from the cell body •Amount of axoplasm lost •Mylein sheath and neurilemma tunnel must be intact •Macrophages must be present and phagocytize protiens
Anterograde degeneration
Degeneration destroys the axon distal to the point of damage.
Retrograde degeneration
Causes the fiber to degenerate for a distance back toward the cell body.
Spinal tracts are located in the _____?
White matter of the spinal cord
Ascending tracts
Travel up the spinal cord to the brain (sensory tracts)
Descending tracts
Travel down the spinal cord away from the brain (motor tracts)
Sensory tract names start with _____ and end at _____?
•Start with spino, •Part of the brain where the Tract leads (eg. spinothalamic Tract)
Myelin sheaths does?
Provide insulation, provide faster conduction, provides for the possibility or repairs to PNS fibers (CNS fibers do not mend they form scar tissue)
Sciatic nerve
Consists of the tibial and peroneal, innervates most of the leg including the flexors of the knee, part of the adductor magnus for plantar flexion, dorisflexion, and other movements of the foot and toes
Decending tracts are?
Coriticospinal, Extrapyramidals, and lateral coriticospinal
The spinal or dorsal ______ contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons entering the spinal cord at that region
Ganglia
Names of Motor Tracts
Start with the part of the brain (orginator)e.g. corticospinal - starts in the cerebral cortex
Fascicles
Bundles of nerve fibers or axons
White Matter fibers are surrounded by?
Oligodendrocytes
The spinal nerve contains the fibers of the ______ and _____ neurons?
Sensory Motor
The cell bodies of nerves are located in _____ or in the _____ matter.
Ganglion (sensory) Gray (motor)
The ganglion contains the cell bodies of the _____ nerves.
Sensory
A nerve does not contain any _____
Cell bodies
The gray matter contains the cell bodies of the _____ nerves.
Motor
Spinal tracts are always located in the ________ matter.
White
_____ an area of unmylinated neurons where cell bodies and synapses are located.
Gray Matter
An area of mylinated fibers in the CNS which contain fiber tracts.
White Matter
Cell bodies of the ____ and _____ neurons are found in the _____ matter.
Interneurons motor Gray
The axons of sensory neurons travel from the dorsal root into the _____ matter of the spinal cord.
Gray
The axons of motor neurons travel through cord through the _____ root.
Ventral
The white matter contains the _____ which ascend and descend the spinal cord.
Spinal tracts
_____ matter surrounds gray matter in the spinal cord.
White
I Olfactory Cranial Nerve
Type: S

Origin: receptors of nasal mucosa, fibers pass through cribform plate to cortical areas of temporal lobe

Function: Smell
II Optic Cranial Nerve
Type: S

Origin: retina of eye to optic chiasma to occipital lobe

Function: Vision
III Oculomotor Cranial Nerve
Type: M

Origin: Midbrain

Function: four of the six external eye muscles: superior and inferior rectus, medial rectus, and inferior oblique. Muscles of the eyelids (levator palpebrae superioris): parasympathetic fibers to iris and ciliary bodies
IV Trochear Cranial Nerve
Type: M

Origin: Midbrain

Function: superior obliques muscles of the eyes
V Trigeminal Cranial Nerve
Type: Both

Origin: lateral pons

Function: Sensory Function:
-Ophthalmic Branch: sup, face (nose and up)
-Maxillary Branch: oral cavity, ant. 2/3 of tongue, teeth, skin of face from lops to nose.
-Mandibular Branch: muscles of mastication (chewing)(masseter and temporalis muscles)
VI Abducens Cranial Nerve
Type: M

Origin: lower pons

Function: effector fibers to lateral rectus muscles of eyes; for lateral eye movements
VII Facial Cranial Nerve
Type: Both

Origin: Lower Pons

Function: Sensory: taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue.
Motor: all muscles for facial expression, autonomic fibers to lacrimal glands and submaxillary and sublingual (salivary)glands
VIII Vestibulocochlear Cranial Nerve
Type: S

Origin: organ of Corti withing cochlea and semicircular canals, enters pons.

Function: Hearing and equilibrium
IX Glossopharyngeal Cranial Nerve
Type: Both

Origin: Medulla

Function: Sensory: sensation and taste from from posterior 1/3 of tongue.
Motor: movements of pharynx and autonomic fibers to paratoid glands (salivary glands)
X Vagus Cranial Nerve
Type: Both

Origin: Medulla

Functions: Sensory: afferent fibers from skin of ext. ear, pharynx, larynx, thoracic and abdominal viscera.
Motor: effector fibers to pharynx, tongue, larynx, and autonomic fibers to thoracic and abdominal viscera
XI Spinal accessory Cranial Nerve
Type: M

Origin: Medulla

Function: efferent fibers to trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles for head and shoulder movements
XII Hypoglossal Cranial Nerve
Type: M

Origin: Medulla

Function: muscles of the tongue
Name three ways to classify sensory receptors:
1) by the type of stimulus they detect 2) by their body location 3) by their structural complexity
Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system can be located in the spinal cord from _______.

1) the cranial nerves and S2 through S4
2) T1 through L2
3) T12 through L4
4) C1 through S4
T1 through L2
All of the following except _______ are easily observed in a cross section of the spinal cord.


1) gray matter
2) white matter
3) fissures
4) ventricles
ventricles
The connective tissue membranes that enclose the spinal cord are called _______.

1) mucosae
2) serosae
3) meninges
4) conis medullaris
meninges
Another name for a complex network of spinal nerves is _______.

1) plexus
2) funiculus
3) horn
4) tract
plexus
The name of the subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates several body activities not generally under conscious control is the _______.

1) central nervous system
2) autonomic nervous system
3) brachial plexus
4) sacral plexus
autonomic nervous system
Preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system are located in _______.

1) the cranial nerves and S2 through S4
2) T1 through L2
3) T12 through S4
4) T1 through S4
the cranial nerves and S2 through S4
Vagus Nerve's parasympathetic motor fibers are involved in...
supplying the heart, lungs, abdominal viscera

involved in regulation of heart rate, breathing, and digestive system activity
Vagus Nerve's sensory impulses from...
thoracic and abdominal viscera, aortic arch baraoreceptors, carotid and aortic bodies, and taste buds of posterior tongue and pharynx
What is the single most important nerve from the cervical plexus?
Phrenic nerve
Where does the Phrenic Nerve receive its input from?
c3 and c4
Why is the Phrenic Nerve important?
It supplies both motor and sensory fibers to the diaphragm which is the chief muscle causing breathing movements.
What are the components of a reflex arc?
1) Receptor 2) Sensory neuron 3) Integration Center 4) Motor neuron 5) Effector
Somatic reflexes mediated by the spinal cord is called
spinal reflexes
Name the major spinal reflexes:
Stretch Reflex
Golgi Tendon Reflex
Flexor Reflex
Crossed-Extensor Reflex
Stretch Reflex...
cause muscle contraction in response to increased muscle length
ipsilateral
same side of the body
contralateral
opposite side of the body
Golgi Tendon Reflex...
cause muscle relaxation and lengthing in response to tension
Flexor or Withdrawal Reflex...
initiated by a painful stimulous and causes automatic withdrawal of the threatened body part from the stimulous
Cross-Extensor Reflex...
accompanies the flexor reflex

complex spinal reflex consisting of an ipsilateral withdrawal reflex and a contralateral extensor reflex
Plantar Reflex...
tests the integrity of the spinal cord from L4 to S2 and determines if the corticospinal tracts are functioning properly

drag a blunt object downward along the lateral sole of the foot
What is a normal response to the Plantar Reflex? abnormal?
downward flexion of the toes

if primary motor cortex or corticospinal tracts are damaged it is replaced by an abnormal reflex called a babinski's sign
What is a babinski's sign?
The great toe dorsiflexes and the smaller toes fan out. This is normal up to age 1.
Abdominal Reflex...
stroking the skin of the abdomen - a contraction of the abdominal muscle toward the stimulated site
Site of stiumlous action
receptor
transmits afferent impules to CNS
sensory neuron
may be a single synapse between sensory neurons and a motor neuron
monosynaptic relex
may be a multiple synapses with chains of interneurons
polysynaptic reflex
Where synapes occur in the CNS
integration center
conducts efferent impulses from the integration center to an effector organ
motor neuron
muscle fiber or gland cell that responds to the efferent impulses
effector
reflexes that activate skeletal muscle
somatic reflexes
reflexes that activate visceral effectors (smooth or cardiac muscle or glands)
autonomic reflexes
1.1 Mechanoreceptors
sound
1.2 Thermoreceptors
hot or cold
1.3 Photoreceptors
light on the retina
1.4 Chemoreceptors
smell
1.5 Nociceptors
pain
2.1 Meissner's corpuscles
Surrounded by Schwann cells
2.2 Krause's end bulbs
In the mucus membranes
2.3 Merkel discs
Deep epidermis
2.4 Pacinian corpuscles
In the mucus membranes
2.5 Ruffini's corpuscles
In the dermis and joint capsules
Sensory neuron cell bodies
Ganglia associated with afferent fibers
Autonomic motor neurons
Ganglia associated with efferent fibers
Endoneurium
Delicate layer of loose connective tissue surrounding each axon
Perineurium
Coarse connective tissue which binds groups of fibers into bundles called fascicles.
Epineurium
The tough fibrous sheath enclosing all fascicles.
Receptor
Site of the stimulus action
Sensory neuron
Transmits afferent impulses to the CNS
Integration center
In simple reflex arcs, may be a single synapse between a sensory neuron and a motor neuron...or may have multiple synapses with chains of interneurons
Motor neuron
Conducts efferent impulses from the integration center to an effector organ
Effector
Muscle fiber or gland cell that responds to the efferent impulses by contracting or secreting
Olfactory
F. Sense of smell
Optic
B. Sensory nerve of vision
Oculomotor
A. Supplies four of the six extrinsic eye muscles
Trochlear
E. Innervates an extrinsic eye muscle that loops through a pulley-shaped ligament in the orbit
Trigeminal
C. Supplies sensory fibers to the face and motor fibers for mastication (chewing muscles)
Abducens
D. Controls the extrinsic eye muscle that abducts the eyeball
Stretch reflexes
B. Stretched and excited by external force or by activating motor neurons, causing muscles to contract
Flexor reflex
C. Initiated by a painful stimulus and causes automatic withdrawal of the threatened part
Golgi tendon reflex
E. Causes muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to contraction
Crossed extensor reflex
D. A complex spinal reflex important in maintaining balance
Plantar reflex
A. Tests the integrity of the spinal cord from L4 to S2; causes a downward flexion of the toes
Facial
F. Innervates muscles of facial expression
Vestibulocochlear
A. Sensory nerve for hearing and balance
Glossopharyngeal
D. Innervates the tongue and pharynx
Vagus
E. Innervates organs in the thorax and abdomen
Accessory
C. Has a cranial root and a spinal root.
Hypoglossal
B. Innervates some tongue-moving muscles