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150 Cards in this Set

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HUMAN RESOURCE
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Project Human Resource Management
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Processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project.
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Human Resource Management (9)
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1.      Organizational Planning
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Involves identifying, documenting and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships.
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2.      Staff Acquisition
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Involves getting the human resources needed.
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3.      Team Development
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Includes both enhancing the ability of stakeholders to contribute as individuals as well as enhancing the ability of the team to function as a team.
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Organizational Planning (9.1)
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1.      Inputs
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a.      Project interfaces
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There are three categories
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1)      Organizational interfaces – Formal and informal reporting relationships among different organizations.
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2)      Technical interfaces – Formal and informal reporting relationships among different technical disciplines.
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3)      Interpersonal interfaces – Formal and informal reporting relationships among different individuals working on the project.
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b.      Staffing requirements
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Define what kinds of skills are required from what kinds of individuals or groups and in what time frames. Staffing requirements are a subset of the overall resource requirements identified during resource planning.
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c.       Constraints
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1)      Organizational structure of the performing organization
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2)      Collective bargaining agreements
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3)      Preferences of the project management team
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4)      Expected staff assignments
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2.      Tools and Techniques
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a.      Templates
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Using the role and responsibility definitions or reporting relationships of a similar project can help expedite the process of organizational planning.
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b.      Human resource practices
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Many organizations have a variety of policies, guidelines and procedures that can help the project team.
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c.         Organizational theory
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d.         Stakeholder analysis
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The needs of the various stakeholders should be analyzed to ensure that their needs will be met.
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3.      Outputs
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a.      Roles and responsibility assignments
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Project roles and responsibilities must be assigned to the appropriate project stakeholders. Roles and responsibilities should be closely linked to the project scope definition.
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b.      Staffing management plan
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Describes when and how human resources will be brought onto and taken off the project team.
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c.       Organizational chart
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Any graphical display of project reporting relationships.
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d.      Supporting detail
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Staff Acquisition (9.2)
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1.      Inputs
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a.      Staffing management plan
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b.      Staffing pool description
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When the project management team is able to influence or direct staff assignments, it must consider the characteristics of the potentially available staff.
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c.       Recruitment practices
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2.      Tools and Techniques
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a.      Negotiations
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Staff assignments must be negotiated on most projects.
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b.      Pre-assignment
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In some cases, staff may be pre-assigned to the project. This occurs when:
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1)      Project is the result of a competitive proposal and specific staff where promised as part of the proposal
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2)      Project is an internal service project and staff assignments were defined within the project charter.
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c.         Procurement
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Can be used to obtain the services of specific individuals, or groups of individuals to perform project activities.
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3.      Outputs
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a.      Project staff assigned
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The project is staffed when appropriate people have been reliably assigned to work on it.
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b.      Project team directory
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Lists all the project team members and other key stakeholders.
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Team Development (9.3)
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1.      Inputs
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a.      Project staff
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b.      Project plan
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c.       Staffing management plan
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d.      Performance reports
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e.       External feedback
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2.      Tools and Techniques
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a.      Team building activities
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Include management and individual actions taken specifically and primarily to improve team performance.
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b.      General management skills
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c.         Reward and recognition systems
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Are formal management actions, which promote or reinforce desired behavior. To be effective, such systems must make the link between performance and reward clear, explicit and achievable.
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d.         Collocation
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Involves placing all or almost all of the most active project team members in the same physical location to enhance their ability to perform as a team.
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e.         Training
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Includes all activities designed to enhance the skills, knowledge and capabilities of the project team.
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3.      Outputs
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a.      Performance improvements
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b.      Input to performance appraisals
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Project staff should generally provide input to the performance appraisals of any project staff members that they interact with in a significant way.
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Leader
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A leader is one in the group who is given the task of directing and coordinating activities.
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Leader or Manager
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·        Leadership
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§         Ability to get things done through others while winning their respect , confidence, loyalty, willing confidence and commitment
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§         Focus the efforts of a group of people toward a common goal and enable them to work as a team
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·        Managing
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§         Broader in scope as it covers non-behavioral and behavioral issues such as planning, organizing, directing, controlling and influencing
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Leadership Styles During the Project Life Cycle
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1.      Phase I (Conceptual) – Leadership
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2.      Phase II (Develop/Detail Planning ) - Leadership
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3.      Phase III (Execute) – Managership
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4.      Phase IV (Finish) – Managership
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Successful PM Skills and Techniques
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1.      Enthusiasm and Energy
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Display interest in the job has a positive effect on team members.
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2.      Decision Making
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Gather necessary information, analyze, select and implement the decisions
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3.      Tolerance for Ambiguity and Change
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Project managers must be able to manage in an unstructured environment where they must deal with ambiguity, constant changes and bring order out of chaos.
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4.      Vision
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Needed to inspire team members. Implies believing in the project and having a clear idea what the client wants.
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5.      Application of Project Management Process
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Must be able to provide effective leadership in the basic project management functions in order to meet the objectives of the project and of the organization as a whole.
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6.      Effective Team Development
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Must be able to quickly develop a cohesive team with a set of common values and a vision sufficient to bind them together.
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7.      Interpersonal Skills
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Able to create a culture and an environment conducive to innovation and high performance by using their human skills and effective interpersonal skills.
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8.      Conceptual Skills
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Ability to see the big picture and analyze the project environment.
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Power
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Ability to influence others so they will respond favorably to the instructions issued to them. Ability to command through influencing others and getting them to do what you want to do, when you want them to do it and in the manner you propose.
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Authority
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Formal power given to a person due to their hierarchical position on the organizational chart. The right to command or give orders.
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Forms of Power
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1.      Reward
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Positive consequences or outcomes that a project manager can offer to project personnel
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2.      Punishment
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Refers to negative things that project personnel believe a project manager can do to them
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3.      Referent
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Earned/personal power. Project personnel admire the project manager as a person and want to follow him or her as a role model.
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4.      Expert
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Earned/personal power based on the technical knowledge, skill or expertise on some topic or issue. It is a function of knowledge rather than formal sanctions given by project personnel.
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5.      Legitimate/Title
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Formal authority - the right to give orders or make requests
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6.      Information
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Have information power over project personnel if they think that the project manager controls the information that they want.
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7.      Persuasion/Charismatic
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Practical form of power in a project environment where project managers have little formal authority over project personnel.
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8.      Contacts/Network
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Refers to building alliances and networks with influential people within the organization.
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Project Manager’s Authority
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INCREASING AUTHORITY
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None
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Functional
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