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### 17 Cards in this Set

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 Experiment A systematic evaluation of the occurence of a phenomenon or of changes in a phenomenon, under well-specified, controlled conditions. Descriptive statistics Summary numbers that describe the characteristics of a sample of items or events. Statistics The method of collecting, organizing, analyzing and reporting on numerical data derived from a sample. Statistic A number that summarizes some quality of a sample taken from a larger population. The sample's mean is a statistic. "Something is missing from my enchilada" Parameter A number that represents the entire population. The population's mean is a parameter. "The whole enchilada" Central Limit Theorem The sampling distribution of the mean approaches a normal distribution as the sample size increases Sampling distribution The hypothetical distribution of a statistic, such as a mean or a variance, derived from a sample. Sample A representative subset of the elements of a population. Normal distribution A collection of many sample points that forms a specific type of bell-shaped, symmetrical curve. Standard normal distribution A normal distribution in which the mean is zero and the standard deviation is one. (Arithmetic) mean The sum of the values of all events in a sample or population divided by the number of events. µ (MU) = Population's (Parameter's) mean X (Xbar) = Sample's mean Median The value in the middle of the range of ordered values. If the range contains an even number of values it median is the average of the 2 middle values in the range. Mode With a set of values, the value that occurs with the greatest frequency. It is the single value most typical of all the values in the distribution. Variance The (population) variance of a random variable is a non-negative number which gives an idea of how widely spread the values of the random variable are likely to be; the larger the variance, the more scattered the observations on average. A measure of dispersion. Variance is the average of the squared deviations from the mean - where "deviation" is the distance between the mean and each item in the population or sample. Standard deviation (SD) A measure of dispersion. Standard deviation is the poitive square root of the variance. Symbol = σ Confidence interval An estimated range of values which is likely to include an unknown population parameter, the estimated range being calculated from a given set of sample data. Variation text