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17 Cards in this Set

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Experiment
A systematic evaluation of the occurence of a phenomenon or of changes in a phenomenon, under well-specified, controlled conditions.
Descriptive statistics
Summary numbers that describe the characteristics of a sample of items or events.
Statistics
The method of collecting, organizing, analyzing and reporting on numerical data derived from a sample.
Statistic
A number that summarizes some quality of a sample taken from a larger population.
The sample's mean is a statistic.
"Something is missing from my enchilada"
Parameter
A number that represents the entire population.
The population's mean is a parameter.
"The whole enchilada"
Central Limit Theorem
The sampling distribution of the mean approaches a <i>normal distribution</i> as the sample size increases
Sampling distribution
The hypothetical distribution of a statistic, such as a mean or a variance, derived from a sample.
Sample
A representative subset of the elements of a population.
Normal distribution
A collection of many sample points that forms a specific type of bell-shaped, symmetrical curve.
Standard normal distribution
A normal distribution in which the mean is zero and the standard deviation is one.
(Arithmetic) mean
The sum of the values of all events in a sample or population divided by the number of events.
µ (MU) = Population's (Parameter's) mean
X (Xbar) = Sample's mean
Median
The value in the middle of the range of ordered values. If the range contains an even number of values it median is the average of the 2 middle values in the range.
Mode
With a set of values, the value that occurs with the greatest frequency. It is the single value most typical of all the values in the distribution.
Variance
The (population) variance of a random variable is a non-negative number which gives an idea of how widely spread the values of the random variable are likely to be; the larger the variance, the more scattered the observations on average.
A measure of dispersion. Variance is the average of the squared deviations from the mean - where "deviation" is the distance between the mean and each item in the population or sample.
Standard deviation (SD)
A measure of dispersion. Standard deviation is the poitive square root of the variance.
Symbol = σ
Confidence interval
An estimated range of values which is likely to include an unknown population parameter, the estimated range being calculated from a given set of sample data.
Variation
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