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108 Cards in this Set

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Briefly explain the role each of the four basic elements of effective communication play in the overall communication process
(1) The sender must encode and transmit the message in a discernible form to the receiver and respond to feedback.
(2) The message is the thoughts, feelings or ideas that have been packaged and sent from the sender to the receiver.
(3) The receiver is the intended recipient of the message.
(4) Feedback is acknowledgment of successful or unsuccessful receipt of the message and is communicated from the receiver to the sender
As a sender, how can you be certain that your communication has been effective?
Look at the feedback from the receiver indicating that the intended message was received and accurately interpreted by the receiver. This feedback may also be in the form of the receiver taking desired actions
Explain why the following transaction is either effective or ineffective communication:SSgt Lentz was asked to pass on the directions for tomorrow's squadron picnic to several members of his work center who were on crew rest when the notice was announced at work. He decided to draft up a map, make numerous copies, and post them in an area where his coworkers would take notice of them when they came to work later that evening.
This is an example of ineffective communication. Although SSgt Lentz used an appropriate media to depict specific directions, he assumed that all coworkers would receive the message, he did not provide a means for the reader to provide feedback, and he made no provision to respond to feedback from the intended audience.
Briefly describe the three directions of formal flow of communication in a typical organization
(1) Downward communication normally originates at upper levels of management and flows down to the lower levels of the organization.
(2) Upward communication is the flow of communication up through the chain of command from lower positions in the organization to higher positions.
(3) With lateral communication, information flows neither downward nor upward; it flows between managers and peers or between coworkers. Many times lateral communication occurs between workers of different units.
Briefly describe the two main types of informal communication found in a typical organization
1) Networks are formed between individuals of different sections and units who regularly interact to accomplish the mission. Networks link individuals into a 'communication web' where they share and exchange strengths to overcome obstacles and resolve otherwise irresolvable problems.
(2) Also known as the 'rumor mill,' the grapevine is the most unmonitored form of verbal communication within the organization and it acts without conscious effort or thought; it will carry any information at any time to anywhere in the organization.
How can networking enhance organizational effectiveness?
By helping individuals identify themselves with the work and serve as a catalyst to building healthy, work-related socializing units.
What are the four major categories of communication barriers?
Organizational, language, managerial, and psychological
What causes language barriers?
An inability to use the right word or words to communicate with a receiver.
Which communication barrier do supervisors create when they do not consider their subordinates' inputs? What could be the results of this barrier?
Managerial barriers. Managerial barriers could result in the subordinates not participating in or providing input for office discussions
What type of barrier or barriers does the following situation describe?SSgt Jackson is the NCOIC of a work center in a transportation squadron with four workers under his supervision. One of those workers is SrA White who is the trainer for the other three workers. For the past month, SrA White has noticed the on-time repair rate for his section is below work center standards. SrA White calls a meeting with the workers to inform them of his findings and outlines a plan to correct the situation.Within a week, two of the airmen from the work center decide SrA White's plan is not working and talk with the branch NCOIC, SSgt Jackson. After listening to the airmen, SSgt Jackson offers some alternative procedures to implement that should improve their on-time repair rate. As SrA White was conducting a spot check within the work center, he noticed two airmen weren't following the procedures that were outlined in the training plan he had devised. When he questioned the airmen, they informed SrA White that they were following the new procedures that were provided by SSgt Jackson.
Paragraph 1 shows managerial barriers. SrA White did not allow the shop workers to provide input for finding the solution to the problem. SrA White also failed to inform his boss, SSgt Jackson, of his plans to rectify the situation. Paragraph 2 shows organizational barriers. The airmen did not follow or understand the lines of communication within the shop. They should have talked to SrA White before going to SSgt Jackson.
What actions can you, as a supervisor, take to reduce the chances of communication barriers affecting your work area?
Improve written and oral communication skills and change the conditions that cause communication barriers.
What actions can a supervisor take to overcome communication barriers?
Establish a communications policy, build a supportive relationship, and build an atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence
Describe the type of exertion that is required of an effective listener
The listener must be actively involved in the listening process. This means the listener must expend energy in order to receive the information, pay attention to the sender, understand the meaning of the message, remember the information for later recall, and respond to the verbal and nonverbal cues of the sender
What is the definition of effective listening?
Listening is the process of receiving, attending, understanding, remembering, and responding to auditory stimuli
What is the definition of hearing?
Hearing is a biological activity that involves perceiving audible signals with our ears.
How can higher intelligence actually be detrimental to effective listening?
1. People with higher intellect may perceive they know more about the subject than the sender does and lose interest in the communication
Why do many people think that good reading skills are required to be an effective listener?
There is often an association made between reading and listening because many of the same cognitive skills are required for both activities. However, people with no or poor reading skills often compensate for their shortfall by intensifying other senses-like listening.
What are the three critical attributes of effective listening
Receiving, attending and understanding
What is receiving?
Accepting information in the form of verbal or nonverbal messages
How do your perceptions affect the listening process?
Perceptions act as a filter for every message. They're based on experience, values, background and attitude, and they influence reception and understanding of the message
What is attending?
Paying attention to the message, focusing on the specific information, and deciding what action is necessary.
What can you do to eliminate external distractions?
Select the message that you are going to pay attention to and focus on that information
What is the understanding element in the listening process?
When there's a shared meaning of the message between the sender and receiver.
What are the two common barriers to understanding?
Word usage/meaning and inconsistency between verbal and nonverbal messages.
What actions should you take in preparing to listen?
Accept responsibility for understanding the message and make an active decision to listen to the message. Be mentally and physically alert and avoid distractions and biases.
What does it mean to listen actively?
Don't just absorb the message; participate in the communication. Listen from the speaker's viewpoint. Pay attention to your posture. Ask questions, make eye contact, and smile
What are some steps you can take to break the boredom barrier?
Try to understand the speaker's point of view. Mentally review the points the speaker has made and write an outline or summarize what he or she has said. Listen and take notes. Ask questions for clarification and contribute your own information or relate your experiences to the subject.
What are the three most common general purposes in effective communication?
Inform, direct, and persuade
How does the general purpose differ from the specific objective of your communication?
The general purpose is what you, as a sender, want to do with the communication; the specific objective is what you want the audience to do as a result of the communication.
Explain each of the two audiences involved in effective communication
1) The sending audience is the group or individual represented during the communication.
(2) The receiving audience is the group your message is intended for.
How can support enhance your communication?
Using support will increase the understanding by using examples, comparisons, explanations, testimony, and statistics.
Explain how citing your references affects your credibility.
The audience will know the information is correct if they're aware of the source, and it eliminates questions about your credibility
Name the main sources you can use for researching your material
Self, subject matter experts, libraries, and the internet.
What are three critical elements in conducting research?
Establish a research plan, manage your time, and documentation
Provide a brief description of each of the following:a. Citation.b. Integration.c. qualification
a. Citation-citing the reference the information comes from.b. Integration-assimilating the support and source of that support directly into the text of the message.c. Qualification-providing credibility to the source being cited
List and describe the elements of organizing communication
1) Introduction-the beginning of the communication, prepares the audience for the information with overview and attention steps.
(2) Body-the meat of the communication (includes most of the support and information).
(3) Conclusion-brings the communication to an end; summarizes the information and motivates the audience to retain the information.
(4) Transitions-transitions signal that you're finished with one point and are progressing on to a new point; they serve as glue that connects all of the main points and ideas together in your communication
What type of pattern would be most appropriate for describing an event or series of steps in a process?
Time or chronological pattern
Give an example of a topic and related main points that would be appropriate for the cause-and-effect organizational pattern
Identify a condition as the cause of a situation and relate it to the resulting conditions or actions as the effect. The snowstorm lasted for 3 days, leaving 26 inches of snow, causing the base to close down, only mission essential personnel reported to work and delayed classes from graduating by 2 days.
List and describe the four types of outlines
(1) Scratch outline-basic outline listing key ideas only, usually in sequence of planned presentation.
(2) Informal outline-expanded version of a scratch outline including key points and specific support material, giving more detail, uses words, phrases, or short sentences.
(3) Formal outline-list of main points and sub-points with support material, using a standard numbering and lettering system.
(4) Talking paper-similar to the formal outline using key words, short statements and phrases, using dashes to indicate main points, double dashes to indicate sub points, one inch margin around entire paper, usually limited to one page.
What are the four steps in the process of writing?
1) Prewriting,
(2) drafting,
(3) editing, and
(4) revising.
What five steps are involved in the prewriting phase?
(1) Selecting your purpose and objective,
(2) analyzing your audience,
(3) researching your subject,
(4) selecting a pattern, and
(5) outlining.
When writing your draft, focus your concerns on what five parts?
(1) introduction,
(2) body,
(3) conclusion, and
(4) transitions
Describe the revising phase.
Revising is a finishing step to improve the communication based on the editing phase and the feedback from the reviewers. You revise or rewrite your draft to make it into a more formal presentation
What is sentence unity?
All the parts of the sentence matching in number, verb, possession, etc
Briefly define the four types of sentences you should use throughout your written communication
(1) Simple sentence-a sentence that expresses one complete thought.
(2) Compound sentence-a union of two or more simple sentences.
(3) Complex sentence-a simple sentence with a dependent clause attached to it.
(4) Compound-complex sentence-a combination of a compound and a complex sentence
Name the standard sentence mechanics you should be aware of when writing.
Punctuation, capitalization, and abbreviation
Briefly describe each of the common obstacles to sentence coherence.
1) Faulty order of sentence parts and misplaced modifiers-sentence parts are not in the correct order.
(2) Faulty parallelisms-similar ideas or parts are not expressed in a parallel way.
(3) Faulty relationship of ideas-reader cannot tell the relationship of sentence parts due to dangling modifiers or omissions.
What are the three basic components of a paragraph?
Topic sentence, support sentence, and closing sentence
What is the basic concept of paragraph coherence?
All of the paragraph parts should be arranged so that their relationship is clear to the reader
What are some examples of a transitional device you can use to show a contrasting relationship?
But, still, however, nevertheless, and yet
Considering the point of view for your communication, describe how writing in the second person is done?
The second person is the person spoken to
Describe the three common forms of tense you will use in your communication
(1) Past-express actions or make a statement about something that happened in the past.
(2) Present-expresses action or makes a statement about something happening in the present time.
(3) Future-expresses action or make a statement about something happening at a future time
What does the voice of your writing indicate?
Voice shows if the subject acts or is acted upon
How do you use number to maintain paragraph coherence?
If the controlling idea is singular, you keep all the references to it singular
What is the basic idea behind writing a draft?
The primary objective is to get your ideas down on paper in some form so you can edit and revise
Each time your work is edited, what should the editor be reading for?
Read for content, arrangement and flow, and readability and mechanics.
What is the definition of a bullet statement given in Webster's Dictionary?
Bullet-an object resembling a bullet in shape, action, or effect; statement-something stated or declared.
What is the working definition of a bullet statement from The Tongue and Quill?
A clear, concise, bottom line of an idea or single accomplishment and its impact
What is usually included in a bullet statement written for an Enlisted Performance Report (EPR)?
A description of how the person performed his or her duties and accomplishments that exceeded standards with the mission impact of those accomplishments.
How are bullet statements used in award nominations?
It should clearly express the person's actions and resulting impact on the mission.?] They are used to describe outstanding tasks the member has accomplished in the narrative and combined in a formal format for the citation
How could failing to provide descriptive bullet statements in EPRs adversely affect the formal recognition and motivation of subordinates?
Since EPRs normally accompany the submission to justify the decoration, if bullet statements are weakly written the decoration may be downgraded or disapproved. If workers are not recognized for their contributions, their motivation will naturally drop.
Describe the use of bullet statements in talking papers
Bullet statements are usually limited to one short statement, the paper is not to exceed one full page and the statements should have enough detail to jog your memory or give the reader the idea of the paper
Describe the attribute of being accurate for writing bullet statements
A statement based on fact and statistics
Describe the attribute of being brief for writing bullet statements
Describe the attribute of being concise for writing bullet statements
Only what has to be there for the reader to understand the statement
Describe the attribute of being specific for writing bullet statements
Clear and to the point
What are the attributes of a single idea bullet statement?
The ABCS and one main idea or thought
What type of writing are single idea bullet statements used for?
Talking paper
What attributes are included in single accomplishment bullet statements?
A bullet statement with the ABCS, a single accomplishment, and the impact of that accomplishment
List the three types of single accomplishment bullet statements
(1) Action verb bullets.
(2) Modified verb bullets.
(3) Specific achievement bullets
What are the four rules for constructing bullet statements?
(1) Use phrases and clauses.
(2) Use sentences without subjects.
(3) Helping verbs, adjectives, and transitions not needed.
(4) Begin accomplishment or impact bullets with strong verb and end with mission impact
What are the four guidelines for writing single idea bullet statements?
(1) Prepare short statements, abbreviate wording.
(2) Use open punctuation.
(3) Avoid detail.
(4) Keep to one page if possible
What are the four guidelines for writing single accomplishment bullet statements?
(1) Follow same basic guidelines for bullet statements (ABCS).
(2) Include action verb element, accomplishment element, and an impact element.
(3) Can be complete sentences.
(4) Relate accomplishment to mission.
What is the purpose of the quarterly and annual recognition programs?
To enhance the morale and esprit de corps of the NCOs and airmen through competition
What areas are usually considered during competition for the Airman of the Quarter or Year?
Duty performance, appearance, military knowledge, customs and courtesies, AF programs, communicative skills, and knowledge of current events
What form is used to submit an airman for the Airman of the Quarter award?
AF Form 1206
How many times can a person be nominated for a quarterly or annual award?
As long as the person meets the criteria for the competition, he or she can be submitted repeatedly for the award. Quarterly award winners are usually automatically considered to be submitted for the annual competition
What is the Below-the-Zone (BTZ) program designed to do?
To promote deserving A1Cs to the rank of SrA as early as 6 months prior to their scheduled promotion eligibility date.
What AFI governs the BTZ program?
AFI 36-2502, Airman Promotion Program
What are the six things to remember when you meet a board for an award or promotion?
1) Study any applicable material or instructions.
(2) Prepare an introduction.
(3) Know your chain of command.
(4) Check your uniform and have someone else check it.
(5) Get a haircut if necessary.
(6) Practice.
What is the difference between an award and a decoration?
An award is presented to a person upon reaching a specific milestone or upon completing a requirement within their career (i.e., NCO PME Graduate Ribbon; you are awarded this ribbon upon completion of any in-residence PME). A decoration usually requires a nomination package or some additional justification, and is most often awarded for specific achievement or period of service (i.e., Air Force Achievement Medal; you may be nominated for this decoration upon completion of an extensive project or significant achievement)
What AFI governs awards and decorations?
AFI 36-2803, The Air Force Awards and Decorations Program
What two forms may be used to recommend someone for an AFAM?
AF Form 642, Air Force Achievement Medal and Air Force Commendation Medal Justification, or AF Form 2274, Air Force Achievement Medal Certificate.
What purpose does the DECOR-6 serve?
It initiates the decoration nomination process and creates a suspense for completion and return of the package. It provides information about the individual being nominated. It also provides areas for completion such as the decoration the person is being recommended for, inclusive dates, and reason for decoration. The DECOR-6 gives the recommending official an opportunity to correct any inaccurate information at this time
How is the AFCM citation prepared?
The AFCM citation is printed on plain bond paper in portrait format and according to the additional formatting requirements of AFI 36-2803
If a decoration is based on false statements and has not been awarded yet, what should be done?
If the decoration package is still in the approval process, a letter should be submitted to follow the package to the approval authority. The letter should state specifically the false information and the reason why the package should be disapproved. Only the approval authority can disapprove a nomination package once it has been submitted
List the steps in the general process of speaking
Prewriting, drafting, editing, revising, and presentation
How does practicing the presentation benefit the speaker?
It helps by bringing to light problem areas that are not evident by reading alone, it will bring new ideas and possibilities to the speaker's attention, and it gets the speaker ready to actually deliver the presentation
Briefly explain the difference between the impromptu and extemporaneous methods of presentation
Impromptu - requires the speaker to talk about a subject on the spur of the moment with little or no preparation. To be effective, an impromptu speaker must be very knowledgeable about the subject and be able to think on his or her feet.Extemporaneous - requires an extensive amount of preparation and practice. The speaker uses a keyword outline in order to recall key words or phrases and is able to gesture and be responsive to the audience and unique situations
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the manuscript method of presentation?
Advantages - there is often plenty of time to prepare the text, edit it, and rehearse it in anticipation of delivery.Disadvantages - there is a danger of being too tied to the text during the reading of the script, resulting in reduced eye contact with the audience and a lack of spontaneity
Which of the presentation methods described in this section is best suited for the situation described above?
Due to the short notice, limitations regarding preparation and subject matter expertise, the impromptu method is the best presentation method in this situation
List the physical behaviors that affect your presentation
Eye contact, body movement, and gestures
Why are physical behaviors important to effective presentations?
The majority of our communication is accomplished nonverbally through eye contact, body movements, and gestures
How can you use your voice to make your presentation more effective?
By using good quality, intelligibility, and variety to indicate the importance or emotion associated with your statements
Why are enthusiasm and sincerity essential to your speaking presentation?
Because the audience will pick up on your enthusiasm and remain interested
What is the best way to overcome nervousness?
Why should a speaker pay attention to his or her word usage?
Because word usage will impact the audience's understanding of the material and their attitude towards you and the material. The words you choose will also say something about yourself and the sending audience
How does time affect your presentation?
Because you're allotted a certain amount of time for your presentation, don't waste time preparing something you won't have time to present
What questions should you ask yourself when using visual aids?
Will it enhance the presentation? When will you introduce it? When will you remove it? What equipment will be needed to use it? Practice with it.
Why is humor expected by some audiences and not by others?
Most public speaking situations do not require humor to accomplish the purpose (briefings, small-groups, meetings). But some speaking situations may necessitate attention grabbers or involve a limited amount of entertainment (small and large audiences).
What are some factors that influence the amount of time allotted for presentations?
How much time has been dictated by the event programmer, what the topic is, how much time has been given to research the subject, and the time of day the of speech
Briefly explain a public speaking situation where reading a manuscript would be the preferred method of presentation
formal presentation at an awards banquet, PME graduation, etc., where the exact words (titles, names, etc.) are extremely importan
Compare differences in audience size and configuration between a shop safety briefing and a commander's call.
Shop safety briefing - group size would be small (5-15 people) and configuration may range from informal standing to solid square or U-shaped.Commander's call - group size would be large (50-200 people) and configuration would probably be in an auditorium or amphitheatre.
How would you use visual aids differently in a small informal group setting than in a larger more formal group?
In a small informal group visual aids can be produced on a smaller scale (fewer handouts), the view screen size can be smaller, and objects may be passed around during the presentation. For larger groups, handouts should be given to audience members as they enter the room and ensure the view screen size is large enough for members in the back to see clearly
After sharing your idea about improving the duty schedule in a shop meeting, your supervisor has asked you to present your recommendation to the section chiefs at next week's staff meeting. List the public speaking variables you should consider changing.
(1) Audience size and configuration - larger group, probably in a 'solid square' configuration.
(2) Atmosphere and tone will be more formal - strengthen organization and support elements of presentation.
(3) Presentation method will need to be extemporaneous.
(4) Time allotted - ask the supervisor how much time will be allowed for the presentation, gather and prepare information within the next few days, ask what time of the day the meeting will be held.
(5) Humor - probably not a good setting for humor.
(6) Visual aids - consider producing handouts instead of showing slides due to limited number of attendees and effort/time needed to set-up and conduct slideshow.
Briefly explain the difference between the effective use of interpersonal communication skills and promoting social relationships
Interpersonal communication skills - gaining a shared meaning from a one-on-one conversation by constantly switching back and forth between roles as sender and receiver and combining good listening, observing and attending skills with good speaking skills.Promoting social relationships - supporting the needs of the individual while not necessarily considering the mission requirements of the organization.
How will practicing effective interpersonal communication skills promote a cooperative work center climate?
It will encourage workers to share ideas on how to improve mission effectiveness. Encouraging feedback from subordinates establishes a supportive climate and helps the leaders make decisions with workers concerns in mind.
Briefly explain how practicing effective interpersonal communication skills will promote mission accomplishment
By creating a situational climate where conflict gets resolved, mission taskings are most effectively accomplished and worker needs are met as the mission is accomplished.