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### 50 Cards in this Set

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 Critical Path Method (CPM) [Technique] Begins with C: A schedule network analysis technique* used to determine the amount of scheduling flexibility (the amount of float) on various logical network paths in the project schedule network, and to determine the minimum total project duration. Early start and finish dates* are calculated by means of a forward pass, using a specified start date. Late start and finish dates* are calculated by means of a backward pass, starting from a specified completion date, which sometimes is the project earl) finish date determined during the forward pass calculation. Current Finish Date Begins with C: The current estimate of the point in time when a schedule activity will be completed, where the estimate reflects any reported work progress. See also scheduled finish date and baseline finish elate. Current Start Date Begins with C: The current estimate of the point in time when a schedule activity will begin, where the estimate reflects any reported work progress. See also scheduled start date and baseline start date. Customer Begins with C: The person or organization that will use the project's product or service or result. (See also user). Data Date (-DD) Begins with D: The date up to or through which the project's reporting system has provided actual status and accomplishments. In some reporting systems, the status information for the data date is included in the past and in some systems the status information is in the future. Also called as-of date and time-non' date. Date Begins with D: A term representing the day, month, and year of a calendar, and, in some instances, the time of day. Decision Tree Analysis [Technique] Begins with D: The decision tree is a diagram that describes a decision under consideration and the implications of choosing one or another of the available alternatives. It is used when some future scenarios or outcomes of actions are uncertain. It incorporates probabilities and the costs or rewards of each logical path of events and future decisions, and uses expected monetary value analysis to help the organization identify the relative values of alternate actions. See also expected monetary value anal ys i.s. Decompose Begins with D: See decomposition. Decomposition [Technique] Begins with D: A planning technique that subdivides the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components, until the project work associated with accomplishing the project scope and providing the deliverables is defined in sufficient detail to support executing, monitoring, and controlling the work. Defect Begins with D: An imperfection or deficiency in a project component where that component does not meet its requirements or specifications and needs to be either repaired or replaced. Defect Repair Begins with D: Formally documented identification of a defect in a project component with a recommendation to either repair the defect or completely replace the component. Deliverable [Outputllnput] Begins with D: Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that must be produced to complete a process, phase, or project. Often used more narrowly in reference to an external deliverable, which is a deliverable that is subject to approval by the project sponsor or customer. See also product, service, and result. Delphi Technique [Technique] Begins with D: An information gathering technique used as a way to reach a consensus of experts on a subject. Experts on the subject participate in this technique anonymously. A facilitator uses a questionnaire to solicit ideas about the important project points related to the subject. The responses are summarized and are then re-circulated to the experts for further comment. Consensus may be reached in a few rounds of this process. The Delphi technique helps reduce bias in the data and keeps any one person from having undue influence on the outcome. Dependency Begins with D: See logical relationship. Design Review [Technique] Begins with D: A management technique used for evaluating a proposed design to ensure that the design of the system or product meets the customer requirements, or to assure that the design will perform successfully, can be produced, and can be maintained. Develop Project Charter [Process] Begins with D: The process of developing the project charter that formally authorizes a project. Develop Project Management Plan [Process] Begins with D: The process of documenting the actions necessary to define, prepare, integrate, and coordinate all subsidiary plans into a project management plan. Develop Preliminary Project Scope Statement [Process] Begins with D: The process of developing the preliminary project scope statement that provides a high level scope narrative. Develop Project Team [Process] Begins with D: The process of improving the competencies and interaction of team members to enhance project performance. Direct and Manage Project Execution [Process] Begins with D: The process of executing the work defined in the project management plain to achieve the project's requirements defined in the project scope statement. Discipline Begins with D: A field of work requiring specific knowledge and that has a set of rules governing work conduct (e.g., mechanical engineering, computer programming, cost estimating, etc.). Discrete Effort Begins with D: Work effort that is separate, distinct, and related to the completion of specific work breakdown structure components and deliverables, and that can be directly planned and measured. Contrast with apportioned effort. Document Begins with D: A medium and the information recorded thereon, that generally has permanence and can be read by a person or a machine. Examples include project management plans, specifications, procedures, studies, and manuals. Documented Procedure Begins with D: A formalized written description of how to carry out an activity, process, technique, or methodology. Dummy Activity Begins with D: A schedule activity of zero duration used to show a logical relationship in the arrow diagramming method. Dummy activities are used when logical relationships cannot be completely or correctly described with schedule activity arrows. Dummy activities are generally shown graphically as a clashed line headed by an arrow. Duration (DU or DUR) Begins with D: The total number of work periods (not including holidays or other nonworking periods) required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Usually expressed as workdays or workweeks. Sometimes incorrectly equated with elapsed time. Contrast with effort. See also original duration, remaining duration, and actual duration. Early Finish Date (EF) Begins with E: In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity (or the project) can finish, based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints. Early finish dates can change as the project progresses and as changes are made to the project management plan. Early Start Date (ES) Begins with E: In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity (or the project) can start, based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints. Early start dates can change as the project progresses and as changes are made to the project management plan. Earned Value (EV) Begins with E: The value of work performed expressed in terms of the approved budget assigned to that work for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Also referred to as the budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP). Earned Value Management (EVM) Begins with E: A management methodology for integrating scope, schedule, and resources, and for objectively measuring project performance and progress Begins with p: Performance is measured by determining the budgeted cost of work performed (i.e., earned value) and comparing it to the actual cost of work performed (i.e., actual cost). Progress is measured by comparing the earned value to the planned value. Earned Value Technique (EVT) [Technique] Begins with E: A specific technique for measuring the performance of work and used to establish the pelformcnlce measurement baseline (PMB). Also referred to as the earning rules and crediting method. Effort Begins with E: The number of labor units required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Usually expressed as staff hours. staff days, or staff weeks. Contrast with duration, Enterprise Begins with E: A company, business, firm, partnership, corporation, or governmental agency. Enterprise Environmental Factors [Output/Input] Begins with E: Any or all external environmental factors and internal organizational environmental factors that surround or influence the project's success. These factors are from any or all of the enterprises involved in the project, and include organizational culture and structure, infrastructure, existing resources, commercial databases, market conditions, and project management software. Estimate [Output/Input] Begins with E: A quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome. Usually applied to project costs, resources, effort, and durations and is usually preceded by a modifier (i.e., preliminary, conceptual, feasibility, order-of-magnitude, definitive). It should always include some indication of accuracy (e.g., Â±x percent). Estimate at Completion (EAC) [OutputlInput] Begins with E: The expected total cost of a schedule activity, a work breakdown structure component, or the project when the defined scope of work will be completed. EAC is equal to the actual cost (AC) plus the estimate to complete (ETC) for all of the remaining work. EAC = AC plus ETC. The EAC may be calculated based on performance to date or estimated by the project team based on other factors, in which case it is often referred to as the latest revised estimate. See also earned value technique and estimate to complete. Estimate to Complete (ETC) [Output/Input] Begins with E: The expected cost needed to complete all the remaining work for a schedule activity, }cork breakdown structure component, or the project. See also earned value technique and estimate at completion. Event Begins with E: Something that happens, an occurrence, an outcome. Exception Report Begins with E: Document that includes only major variations from the plan (rather than all variations). Execute Begins with E: Directing. managing, performing, and accomplishing the project work, providing the deliverables, and providing work performance information. Executing Begins with E: See execute. Executing Processes [Process Group] Begins with E: Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to accomplish the project's objectives defined in the project scope statement. Execution Begins with E: See execute. Expected Monetary Value (EMV) Analysis Begins with E: A statistical technique that calculates the average outcome when the future includes scenarios that may or may not happen. A common use of this technique is within decision tree analysis. Modeling and simulation are recommended for cost and schedule risk analysis because it is more powerful and less subject to misapplication than expected monetary value analysis. Expert Judgment [Technique] Begins with E: Judgment provided based upon expertise in an application area, knowledge area, discipline, industry, etc. as appropriate for the activity being performed. Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education. knowledge, skill, experience, or training, and is available from many sources, including: other units within the performing organization; consultants; stakeholders. including customers; professional and technical associations; and industry groups. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) [Technique] Begins with F: An analytical procedure in which each potential failure mode in every component of a product is analyzed to determine its effect on the reliability of that component and, by itself or in combination with other possible failure modes, on the reliability of the product or system and on the required function of the component; or the examination of a product (at the system andlor- lower levels) for all ways that a failure may occur. For each potential failure, an estimate is made of its effect on the total system and of its impact. In addition, a review is undertaken of the action planned to minimize the probability of failure and to minimize its effects. Fast Tracking [Technique] Begins with F: A specific project schedule compression technique that changes network logic to overlap phases that would normally be done in sequence, such as the design phase and construction phase, or to perform schedule activities in parallel. See schedule compression and see also crashing. Finish Date Begins with F: A point in time associated with a schedule activity's completion. Usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, baseline, target, or current. Finish-to-Finish (FF) Begins with F: The logical relationship where completion of work of the successor activity cannot finish until the completion of work of the predecessor activity. See also logical relationship.