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54 Cards in this Set

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Net result for first 3 steps in glycolysis is to convert:
unphosphorylated molecule (glucose) to double phosphorylated molecule (fructose 1,6 bisphosphate).
Phophorylation takes place on Carbon 6 (in Gly 1) because:
hydroxyl group can be readily linked to phosphate group to form the phosphoester glucose 6-phosphate.
ATP hydrolysis provides a phosphate group and also makes it to be
irreversible (exergonic)
Bond formed when glucose is phosphorylated is:
Phosphoester bond.
Low energy bond.
Phosphoanhydride bond links
the terminal ATP together.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first reaction is:
Hexokinase.
Enzyme important in regulation of glycolysis is:
PFK-1
PhosphoFructose Kinase 1
Fructose 1,6 Bisphosphate is split reversibilty by:
Aldolase
Aldolase yeilds how many carbon sugars?
two trioses
(3 carbon sugars)
The two triposes are called:
1. Dihudroxyacetone phosphate
DHAP
2. Glyceraldehyde 3 Phosphate
GA3P
Step 1 of glycolysis involves which reactions?
Gly 1 to Gly 5
Step 2 of Glycolysis involves which reactions?
Gly 6 to Gly 7
Step 3 of Glycolysis involves which reactions?
Gly 8 to Gly 10
How many ATP have been consumed per molecule in Phase 1?
2 molecules of ATP per molecule have been consumed.
In Phase 2, ATP production is linked directly to an:
oxidative event.
In Phase 3, energy rich phosphorylated form of pyruvate molecule serves as a driving force for:
ATP generation.
Phase 3, how many ATP are generated?
2 more ATP molecules are generated in final phase.
In the final phase of Glycolysis, the Phosphoester Bond is converted to:
Phosphoenol Bond.
(highly exergonic)
Enolase removes
water from 2-phosphglycerate
Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is a ____ energy compound.
PEP is "High" energy compound.
This reaction summarizes which phase of Glycolysis?

Glucose + 2 ATP --> 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate + 2 ADP
The first phase of glycolysis.
This reaction summarizes which phase of Glycolysis?

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate + NAD+ + ADP + Pi ---> 3-phosphoglycerate + NADH + H + ATP
Second Phase of Glycolysis
This reaction summarizes which phase of Glycolysis?

3-phosphoglycerate + ADP ---> pyruvate + ATP
The third phase of glycolysis
How many ATP were first invested in Gly 1 and Gly 3?
Two ATP in Gly 1 and Gly 3
How many ATP were returned in Gly 7?
2 ATP returned in Gly 7
Overall Expression for Glycolysis:

glucose + 2 NAD + 2 ADP + 2 Pi -----> 2 pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2 H + 2 ATP
Glycolysis is a highly exergonic reaction.
All cells possess ability to extract energy (by oxidizing it to pyruvate).
Fate of pyruvate depends on:
whether oxygen is available.
In the presence of Oxygen, Pyruvate is oxidized to
Acetyl Coenzyme A (Acetyl CoA).
Acetyl CoA can be completely oxidized to
CO2
Acetyl CoA can generate up to how many ATP?
Acetyl CoA can generate up to 30 ATP per glucose.
In the absence of Oxygen, how many ATP can be generated?
None. No ATP is generated in anaerobic conditions.
How does the cell get energy if there is no ATP generated in anaerobic conditions?
Anerobic conditions rely on the ATP yield of the 2 ATP per glucose in the pathway.
Glucose is consumed more rapidly in order to:
maintain steady state cellular ATP levels.
In anaerobic conditions pyruvate is reduced by...
accepting electrons and protons, must be removed from NADH.
Products of pyruvate reduction are (anerobic and aerobic)
Aerobic: CO2
Anerobic: Ethanol, Lactate
In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate undergoes fermentation and regenerates:
NAD+
Lactate is generated from the direct transfer of electrons from:
NADH to the carbobyl group of pyruvate.
What enzyme catalyses lactate?
Lactate Dehydrogenase
In alcoholic fermentation, pyruvate loses a carbon atom (CO2) to form:
the 2 Carbon compound acetaldeyde.
Acetaldehyde reduction by NADH makes
Ethanol
What are teh 2 enzumes that catalyze alcohol fermentation?
1. pyruvate decarboxylase
2. alcohol dehydrogenase
In fermentation, what happens with electron acceptors and oxidation?
In fermentation, there is no external electron acceptor.
There is no net oxidation that occurs.
How many molecules of ATP per glucose in lactate or alcoholic fermentation?
2 molecules of ATP per glucose in lactate or alcoholic fermentation.
Has 686 kcal of free energy.
Is the energy yeild of lactate fermentation high or low?
The energy yield is low in lactate fermentation.
Most sugars are what kind of saccharide?
Mono-saccharide or Di-saccharide.
Is table sugar a disaccharide?
Yes, table sugar is a di-saccharide.
Name 4 common dietry hexoses:
glucose
fructose
galactose
mannose
Do glucose and fructose enter directly onto Carbon 6 after phosphorylation?
Yes. Glucose and fructose enter directly onto carbon 6 after phosphorylation.
Mannose is converted to ____ and then to _____.
Mannose is converted to Mannose 6 phosphate (M6P) and then to fructose 6 phosphate (F6P).
Phosphorylated pentoses have to be converted to ____ before being put into the glycolytic pathway.
Pentoses have to be converted to hexose phosphates.
Polysccharides are cleaved to form:
sugar phosphates that enter the glycolytic pathway.
glucose is the immediate substrate for (2 things):
glucose is the immediate substrate for
1. fermentation
2. respiration
Storage polysaccharides are found commonly in which plants and animals?
- starch in plants
- glycogen in animals
Define: Phosphorolysis
Phosphorolysis: Resembles hydrolysis but uses inorganic phosphate rather than water to break a chemical bond.