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18 Cards in this Set

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plural rule #1
for most words add -s
plural rule #2
words ending in -s, -z, -ch, -sh, o, and nonmedical -x add -es
plural rule #3
words ending in -y which are preceded by a consonant, change -y to -i and add -es.

if the -y is preceded by a vowel, add an -s.
plural rule #4
words ending in -um change the -um to an -a.
plural rule #5
words ending in -a add an -e.

*exceptions- words ending in
-oma and -gma add -ta.
stroma-stromata
and the words adnexa and genitalia appear only in the plural form. There are singular forms, but are not used.

Genitalis are normal (not "is")
plural rule #6
words ending in -us, replace the -us with a single -i.

**exceptions- plexus and meatus: both forms are the same but they are treated as singular forms.

**viscus becomes viscera
crus becomes crura
corpus becomes corpora
plural rule #7
words ending it -en, change the -en to -ina.

unusual ending, memorize these examples:
foramen becomes foramina
lumen becomes lumina
plural rule #8
words ending in -is, change the -i to an -e.

*exceptions:
arthritis-arthritides
cuspis-cuspides
iris-irides
plural rule #9
words ending in either -ex or -ix replace the ending with -ices.

*exceptions: reflexes and if any other letter, except -n, precedes the -x, replace the -x with -ces.

if an -n precedes the -x replace the -x with -ges.
pharynx-pharynges
exception to rule #5
words ending in -oma or -gma add -ta
exception to rule #5
adnexa and genitalia are used in plural form only. there are singular forms, but are not used.
exceptions to rule #6
plexus and meatus. these are treated as singular forms. both plural and singular are the same.
viscus
crus
corpus

what are the plurals?
viscera
crura
corpora

these are exceptions to rule #6
uncommon endings for rule #7
foramen-foramina
lumen-lumina

-en to -ina
exceptions to rule #8
arthritis-arthritides
cuspis-cuspides
iris-irides

changing -is to -es
exceptions to rule #9
reflex-reflexes
exceptions to rule #9
if any other letter, except -n, precedes the -x, replace the -x with -ces.
exception to rule #9
if the -x is preceded by an -n, replace the -x with -ges.

pharynx-pharynges