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39 Cards in this Set

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Hu Jintao
China Pres.
Vladimir Putin
Russia Pres.
Shinzo Abe
PM Japan
Mahmoud Abbas
Palestinian Pres.-Fatah
Kim Jong Il
Pres. North Korea
Hamas
Palestinian Islamist organization that currently (since January 2006) forms the majority party of the Palestinian National Hamas is known outside the Palestinian territories for its suicide bombings[2] and other attacks directed against Israeli civilians, as well as military and security forces targets. Hamas' charter (written in 1988 and still in effect) calls for the destruction of the State of Israel and its replacement with a Palestinian Islamic state in the area that is now Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip.[3][4][5] The charter states: "There is no solution for the Palestinian question except through Jihad."[6]Authority.[1]
Fatah
a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. In Palestinian politics it is on the center-left of the spectrum. It is mainly secular and nationalist although not predominantly socialist.

The reverse acronym was chosen because it is similar to the word fath, "conquest" (after the first Arab-Muslim conquests).

In the January 25, 2006 parliamentary election, the party lost its majority in the Palestinian parliament to Hamas, and resigned all cabinet positions, instead assuming the role as the main opposition party. It has often since been described in the media as the more "moderate" party, although many dispute this due to its past and current actions and policies.[1][2][3]
Hosni Mubarak
Pres. Egypt
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Pres. Iran
Felipe Calderon
Pres. Mexico
Hugo Chavez
Pres. Venezuela
Ban ki-moon
Pres. UN
Jaques Chirac
Pres. France
Fidel Castro
Pres. Cuba
IMF
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that oversees the global financial system by observing exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering financial and technical assistance when requested. Its headquarters are located in Washington, D.C. and offices around the world.
IBRD
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is one of five institutions that comprise the World Bank Group. The IBRD is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means of financing states. Its operation is maintained through payments as regulated by member states. It came into existence on December 27, 1945 following international ratification of the agreements reached at the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference of July 1 to July 22, 1944 in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire.
OPEC
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization made up of Algeria, Angola, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. OPEC's international headquarters (since 1965) is located in Vienna, Austria. The organization is considered a cartel by many observers [1][2].

The principal aim of the organization, according to its Statute, is the determination of the best means for safeguarding their interests, individually and collectively; devising ways and means of ensuring the stabilization of prices in international oil markets with a view to eliminating harmful and unnecessary fluctuations; giving due regard at all times to the interests of the producing nations and to the necessity of securing a steady income to the producing countries; an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations, and a fair return on their capital to those investing in the petroleum industry."[1] OPEC's influence on the market has not always been a stabilizing one; however, it alarmed the world and triggered high inflation across both the developing and developed world through its use of the oil weapon in the 1973 oil crisis. Its ability to control the price of oil has diminished greatly since its heyday, following the much-expanded development of the Gulf of Mexico, the North Sea, and the growing fluidity of the market. However, OPEC still has considerable impact on the price of oil.
UN
The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 50 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.

The UN was founded after the end of World War II by the victorious Allied Powers in the hope that it would act to intervene in conflicts between nations and thereby avoid war. The organization's structure still reflects in some ways the circumstances of its founding. The five permanent members of the UN Security Council, each of which has veto power on any UN resolution, are the main victors of World War II or their successor states: People's Republic of China (which replaced the Republic of China), the French Republic, the Russian Federation (which replaced the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), the United Kingdom, and the United States of America.
FTAA
Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) (Spanish: Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas (ALCA), French: Zone de libre-échange des Amériques (ZLEA), Portuguese: Área de Livre Comércio das Américas (ALCA)) is a proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce trade barriers among all nations in the American continents (except Cuba, Venezuela and later Bolivia and Nicaragua, which entered the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas in response). In the latest round of negotiations, officials of 34 nations met in Mexico on November 16, 2003 to discuss the proposal. The proposed agreement is an extension of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between Canada, Mexico and the United States.
ICJ
International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: Cour internationale de Justice) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. It is based in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, sharing the building with the Hague Academy of International Law, a private center for the study of international law. Several of the Court's current judges are either alumni or former faculty members of the Academy.
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Area is the trade bloc created by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and its two supplements, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) and the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC), whose members are Canada, Mexico and the United States. It came into effect on 1 January 1994.
EU
The European Union (EU) is a supranational and intergovernmental union of 27 democratic member states in Europe. It was established under that name in 1992 by the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty). Many aspects of the Union existed before then through a series of predecessor relationships, dating back to 1951.[1]1957 Flag of Belgium Belgium Flag of France France Flag of West Germany West Germanya

Flag of Italy Italy Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg Flag of Netherlands Netherlands
6
1973 Flag of Denmark Denmarkb Flag of Republic of Ireland Ireland Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom 9
1981 Flag of Greece Greece 10
1986 Flag of Portugal Portugal Flag of Spain Spain 12
1995 Flag of Austria Austria Flag of Finland Finland Flag of Sweden Sweden 15
2004 Flag of Cyprus Cyprus Flag of Czech Republic Czech Republic Flag of Estonia Estonia
Flag of Hungary Hungary Flag of Latvia Latvia Flag of Lithuania Lithuania
Flag of Malta Malta Flag of Poland Poland Flag of Slovakia Slovakia
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia 25
2007 Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria Flag of Romania Romania 27
Mercosur
Mercosur or Mercosul (Spanish: Mercado Común del Sur, Portuguese: Mercado Comum do Sul, English: Southern Common Market) is a Regional Trade Agreement (RTA) between Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Paraguay, founded in 1991 by the Treaty of Asunción, which was later amended and updated by the 1994 Treaty of Ouro Preto. Its purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, peoples, and currency.

Mercosur origins trace back to 1985 when Presidents Raúl Alfonsín of Argentina and José Sarney of Brazil signed the Argentina-Brazil Integration and Economics Cooperation Program or PICE (Spanish: Programa de Integración y Cooperación Económica Argentina-Brasil). [1]

Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru currently have associate member status. Venezuela signed a membership agreement on 17 June 2006, and became a full member on July 4. The organization has a South and Central America integration vocation.Current members:

* Flag of Argentina Argentina (1991)
* Flag of Brazil Brazil (1991)
* Flag of Paraguay Paraguay (1991)
* Flag of Uruguay Uruguay (1991)
* Flag of Venezuela Venezuela (2006)
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[2] (NATO; French: Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord ("OTAN"); also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance, the Western Alliance, or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is a military alliance established by the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. Headquartered in Brussels, Belgium,[3] the organisation establishes a system of collective security whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.
WTO
The World Trade Organization (WTO) (OMC - French: Organisation Mondiale du Commerce, Spanish: Organización Mundial del Comercio) is an international organization that establishes rules for international trade through consensus among its member states. It also resolves disputes between the members, which are all signatories to its set of trade agreements.

The organization's headquarters are located in Geneva, Switzerland. There are 150 member states in the organization, the latest to join being Vietnam on January 11, 2007.[3] Pascal Lamy is the current Director-General of the World Trade Organization.

Since its inception in 1995, the WTO has been a major focus for protests by civil society groups in many countries.
SEATO
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defence Treaty or the Manila Pact, was an international organization for collective defence established on September 8, 1954. It was primarily created to block further Communist gains in Southeast Asia. The organization's headquarters was located in Bangkok, Thailand. SEATO was dissolved on June 30, 1977.
CENTO
Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, original name was Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad Pact) was adopted in 1955 by Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, and Iran, as well as the United Kingdom. Although American pressure, along with promises of military and economic largesse, were key in the negotiations leading to the agreement, the United States chose not to initially participate as to avoid alienating Arab states with which it was still attempting to cultivate friendly relations. Some (particularly nationalist radicals) saw the Pact as an attempt by the British to retain influence in the Middle East as a substitute for the loss of their empire in India. In 1958 the United States joined the military committee of the alliance. It is generally viewed as one of the least successful of the Cold War alliances. Organizations headquarters was initially located in Baghdad, Iraq.
ANZUS
Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which binds Australia and the United States, and separately Australia and New Zealand to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in any area.
NGO
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are private organizations that can also be international in scope. Generally and correctly used, however, the term "international organization" is reserved for intergovernmental organizations only. It is in this sense that the term is used in the remainder of this article.
IGO
An international organization, or more formally intergovernmental organization (IGO), is an organization, such as the European Community or the WTO, with sovereign states or other IGOs as members. Such organizations function according to the principles of intergovernmentalism, which means that unanimity is required. The European Union is however an exception to this rule in some areas.
MNC
multinational corporation (MNC) or multinational enterprise (MNE) or transnational corporation (TNC) or multinational organization (MNO) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries.

Multinational corporations (MNC) are often divided into three broad groups:

* Horizontally integrated multinational corporations manage production establishments located in different countries to produce the same or similar products. (example: McDonalds)
* Vertically integrated multinational corporations manage production establishment in certain country/countries to produce products that serve as input to its production establishments in other country/countries. (example: Adidas)
* Diversified multinational corporations manage production establishments located in different countries that are neither horizontally or vertically integrated. (example: Microsoft)
GATT
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (typically abbreviated GATT) was originally created by the Bretton Woods Conference as part of a larger plan for economic recovery after World War II. The GATT's main purpose was to reduce barriers to international trade. This was achieved through the reduction of tariff barriers, quantitative restrictions and subsidies on trade through a series of different agreements. The GATT was an agreement, not an organization. Originally, the GATT was supposed to become a full international organization like the World Bank or IMF called the International Trade Organization. However, the agreement was not ratified, so the GATT remained simply an agreement. The functions of the GATT have been replaced by the World Trade Organization which was established through the final round of negotiations in the early 1990s.
IPE
International political economy (IPE) is a perspective in the social sciences and history that analyzes international relations in combination with political economy. Ultimately, IPE is about the consequences on an international level of the interaction between the state (politics) and the market (economics).

Scholars of IPE study trade relations and financial relations among nations, and try to understand how nations have cooperated politically to create and maintain institutions that regulate the flow of international economic and financial transactions.
GNP
Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. They use a system of national accounts or national accounting first developed during the 1940s. Some of the more common measures are Gross National Product (GNP), Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross National Income (GNI), Net National Product (NNP), and Net National Income (NNI). Formerly in the Soviet Union and its friendly states COMECON, Net Material Product (NMI) was estimated (NNP-Services). In relation to greening the national accounts the United States Congressional Budget Office concludes "a gradual process of modifying measures of national economic performance is consistent with the history and development of the national accounts."[1]
GDP
A region's gross domestic product,or GDP, is one of several measures of the size of its economy. The GDP of a country is defined as the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time. It is also considered the sum of value added at every stage of production of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time. Until the 1980s the term GNP or gross national product was used in the United States. The two terms GDP and GNP are almost identical. The most common approach to measuring and understanding GDP is the expenditure method:

GDP = consumption + investment + government spending + (exports − imports)
MFN
Most favored nation (MFN), also called normal trade relations in the United States, is a status accorded by one nation to another in international trade. Somewhat counterintuitively, it does not confer particular advantages on the receiving nation, but means that the receiving nation will be granted all trade advantages, such as low tariffs that any third nation also receives. In effect, having MFN status means that one's nation will not be treated worse than anyone else's nation.
BMD
National Missile Defense (NMD) as a generic term is a military strategy and associated systems to shield an entire country against incoming Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs). The missiles could be intercepted by other missiles, or possibly by lasers. They could be intercepted near the launch point (boost phase), during flight through space (mid-course phase), or during atmospheric descent (terminal phase).
IAEA
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. It seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower envisioned, in his "Atoms for Peace" speech before the UN General Assembly in 1953, the creation of this international body to control and develop the use of atomic energy. The organization and its Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei, were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize announced on 7 October 2005.
WHO
World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Established on 7 April 1948, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health Organization, which had been an agency of the League of Nations.