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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Appeasement- if you give somthing to a dictator, they're just going to want more
Bay of Pigs
WWI/Guns of August
WWI was started by a lack of understanding about how technology had changed the nature of war
States exist in a formally anarchic environment
MAD if
time to respond to first strike, mutual vulnerability
What is the flaw of sovereignty?
Requirement for self-help leads to security dilemma
Security dilemma
Many of the means by which a state tries to increase its security decrease the security of others
What does a statesman's understanding of the security dilemma influence?
How he interprets the other’s past behavior and how he projects it into the future
3 examples of the security dilemma
Missile defense, Cuban Missile crisis, Britain/Germany before WWI
3 ways to ease security dilemma
Geography, strong defensive technology, offense/defense differentiation
Relative deprivation
Wars and conflicts occur because of jealousy
What does relative deprivation say should lead to more wars?
Economic depression
Arguments against relative deprivation
Poor states do not fight each other or rich states
Seville Statement on Violence of 1986
War isn't inevitable because of human nature (not inherently violent)
Gurr's J curve
People fight when steady progress is followed by a sharp downturn
Marxists say capitalist societies are...
inherently warlike
The need for access to foreign markets leads to... (according to Marxists)
What do elite companies do, according to Marxists?
Demand military spending
What do the rich do, according to Marxists?
Capture the state and do not suffer the costs of war
What is Hobson's theory?
Capitalism leads to the accumulation of capital, which leads to underconsumption, which leads to companies finding foreign markets
In neorealism, what is the most important determinant of conflict?
International system
In neorealism, how do you keep peace?
Through balance of power (equal deterrance)
What does neorealism tend to neglect?
Economic dimensions of world politics
According to neorealism, what are states intereted in?
Maximizing relative gains
According to liberals, what are states intereted in?
Maximizing absolute gains
What does Waltz say about polarity?
Bipolarity is more stable
According to Waltz, what leads to actions?
Influence on the unit by the system
What is Organski's theory?
Power transition theory
What does power transition theory say?
War and conflict came about not because of polarity, but because of changes in polarity and power
When does power transition theory say wars occur?
When both sides think they can win
When is it likely for both sides to think they can win a war?
When strong state getting weaker and weak state getting stronger
What are two causes of uneven growth?
Imperial overstretch, next big technology developed elsewhere
Modelski and Thompson’s theory
Long wave
Blainey's critique of Waltz
It's not unbalance of power that starts wars- wars start when sides are equally matched, and end when one side shows more power
Keohane and Nye's Critique of Waltz
Complex interdependence, soft power is important, transnational relations change over time
Complex interdependence
Not only states count, no set hierarchy of international issues
What do Keohane and Nye think links states?
International organizations
What kind of structure is less prone to civil war?
What are 2 causes of ethnopolitical conflict?
Poverty, lack of democracy
2 perpetuates of existing ethnopolitical conflict
Lootable resources, external assistance
Types of terrorism
Domestic, transnational, state, state-sponsored
What do realists say about ethics?
Ends justify means
What do pacifists say about ethics?
Bad means don't justify any ends
Just War Tradition
Compromise position between pacifism and realism
Jus ad bellum
Find justice of war
Jus in bello
Justice in war
Ideas about just war from Groitus
Just cause and last resort
Just cause
War is only for self-defense
Last resort
Try everything else first
3 parts of just war
Declared publicly/legitimately, discrimination, proportionality
Combatants must respect immunity of noncombatants
Legitimate aims must outweigh harm that will result from war
Public/legitimate declaration relates to
Jus ad bellum
Proportionality relates to
Jus ad bellum, jus in bello
Double effect
Within a war, each action has good/bad consequences
Three perpectives of international law
Naturalism, positivism, realism
Community of humankind exists, all share rights/responsibilities
IL codifies customs, agreements, treaties that states make (things that already exist)
What is naturalism similar to?
What is positivism similar to?
Just war
What do positivists say is sacred?
Pacta sunt servanda
Pacts must be observed
Realism and IL
IL doesn’t matter, leaders shouldn’t feel bound by it because ends justify means
Functions of IL
Communication, coordination, change behavior, clarify expectations
2 perspectives of sovereignty in IL
communitarians, cosmopolitans
Respect state sovereignty
Sovereignty comes from following IL
International organization
The way states arrange themselves for purposes of promoting cooperation and collaboration
Realists and IOs
IOs exist, but they do not affect behavior
Realists see IOs as...
Not doing anything, just being affected
Liberals take _______ stance on IOs
Liberals and IOs
IOs matter because of consent
Unstable/negative peace
Absense of war due to military threats
Stable peace
Absense of preparation for/expectation of war
Positive peace
Absense of injustice/disagreements that cause conflict
Liberals say creating democracies leads to...
...stable/positive peace
Cultural explanation for democratic peace
Perceptions and practices of peaceful resolution of conflict filter up to international level
Structural explanation for democratic peace
Institutional constraints on the executive matter
Doyle’s democratic peace
It is not that democracies do not fight at all, it’s that democracies don’t fight each other
Kantian Tripod of Peace
Federation of states, hospitality, democracy
What happens when you increase trade?
You increase peace
IOs and peace
Forum, information, regulations/laws, legitimacy
Three theories of stable peace
World federalism, functionalism, security community
World federalism
Create a world government like the US government with some autonomous power for “states”
Use IOs as if they were executive bureaucracies (solve problems)
Security community
Develop international community
Mansfield and Snyder and Democracies
When transitioning from a dictatorship to a democracy, there is plenty of room for trouble