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61 Cards in this Set

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Describe selective perception
the tendency to see only what one wants to see and ignoring other aspects
cognitive dissonance
theory that people are motivated to reduce internal conflicts; resolving conflicting beliefs and actions by changing a belief
pre-decisional dissonance
changing one's natural beliefs or actions by exposing them to a an extreme action or belief before the observation. e.g Doctor and son puzzle changing people's behavior regarding future sexist puzzles.
postdecisional dissonance
changing one's belief after taking an action. e.g. betters feel more confident after placing a bet than before.
explain the difference between self-perception theory and cognitive dissonance
“The difference between self-perception theory and cognitive dissonance theory is that self-perception theory explains classical dissonance findings in terms of how people infer the causes of their behavior, whereas cognitive dissonance theory explains these findings in terms of a natural motivation to reduce internal conflict.”
how does memory work?
Memories are not an exact copy, they are reconstructive. Try imagining a pleasurable experience, you probably saw yourself in that reconstructed scene.
Hindsight bias
tendency to view what has already happened as relatively inevitable and obvious without realizing that retrospective knowledge of the outcome is influencing one’s judgments.
How to reduce hindsight bias
consider how an alternative outcome might have occurred.
Context dependence
a theory that describes "decision makers who do not perceive and remember material in isolation; they interpret new information in light of past experiences and the context in which the material occurs."
Primacy effect
That which appears first will have the most influencing impression, such as the order of adjectives in describing someone. The second and third adjective still have an effect, but not as strong as the first.
Recency effect
that which appears most recently has the most influential impression.
Resolve the conflict between primacy effect and recency effect
Miller and Campbell investigated which effect was more powerful, the primacy effect, or the recency effect. Primacy effect is more powerful if a pro and con message are presented side by side, but there is a delay in response time on which one you agree with. The recency effect is more powerful is one message is presented, there a delay, then second message with immediate response soon thereafter.
Halo effects
impressions of people or situations are affected by contextual characteristics, such as beautiful, smart, warm, etc.
short description of context dependence
the way people act to a stimulus depends on the context.
Plasticity in survey questions
the answers to questions can be manipulated the the words, order, and context involved with the question.
Order effect
people tend to answer questions differently depending on the order of the words, items being compared, and even the answers' order
pseudo-opinion
Opinions given by those who actually have no knowledge of the topic
Filter out pseudo-opinions with “no opinion” or “I don’t know” options
The effect of open verses closed questions
Open ended question of which is the most pressing problem in the nation today elicited much different responses than a closed question.
social desireability
People give answers that seem to be socially desirable
The effect of "to allow" verses "to forbid"
People tend to agree with “not allow” statements more than “forbid” statements
Framing losses and gains
People respond differently to losses than to gains based on the word choices rather than the statistical probability
Expected Utility Theory
Defines 6 axioms rational people use to make decisions; and that aberration in behavior are caused by violating one of the axioms
Axioms of expected utility theory
ordering of alternatives
dominance
cancellation
transitivity
continuity
invariance pg82
Problems with expected utility theory
E.U.Theory does not explain decision makers because it assumes:
Decision makers have complete information about the probabilities and consequences.
Decision makers understand this information
Decision makers are able to calculate the advantage and disadvantage of each alternative.
Prospect Theory
Explains decision making by replacing "utility" with "value", which value may be different even though the utility may appear to be the same. e.g losing $500 is felt more than gaining $500.
Regret theory
describes decision making with two new assumptions: Many people experience the sensations of regret and rejoicing.
In making decisions under uncertainty, they try to anticipate and take account of those sensations.
satisficing decision making
a choice is "good enough" to go with a decision.
certainty effect
people value certainty more than an equal reduction of probability. e.g. people value more removing the last one bullet than one of four bullets from a game of russian roulette
compensatory strategy
decision making by weighing trade off between choices: linear model, additive difference model, ideal point model. pg102
What are the four points to remember about representativeness heuristics?
+ Don't be misled by highly detailed scenarios.
+ Pay attention to base rates
+ Remember chance is not self-correcting pg119
+ Don't misinterpret regression towards the mean
What does availability heuristics mean?
being influenced in the decision making process more by that which is easy to recall mentally than by that which is harder to recall
How does vividness impact decision making?
vivid information is easier to recall than pallid info, therefore more influenced by the vivid.pg125, e.g. vivid guacamole
How does one correct for vividness effect on decisions?
explicitly compare over and underestimated dangers.
Compare positive outcome probability to negative outcome probability
Positive outcomes are viewed as more probable than negative outcomes.
Compare probability of conjunction events and disjunctive events
People often overestimate the probability of conjunction events, and underestimate disjunctive events.
True or False
People's perceptions of risk are highly subjective.
True
List recommendations to account for probability and risk biases
+ Maintain accurate records
+ Beware of wishful thinking
+ Divide compound events into simple events.
define anchoring
The insufficient adjustment up or down from an original starting value, or “anchor”.
How does one compensate for anchoring effect?
Be aware of any suggested values.

The most effective approach is to generate an alternative anchor value that is equally extreme in the opposite direction.

Consider multiple anchors before attempting to make a final estimate.
Name three problems related decision making from correlations
+ Thinking correlation means causation
+ Only looking at the correlation among positive-cases and ignoring the negatively correlated cases
+ failing to see invisible correlations pg166
Define Social Facilitation
the ability of observers (audience) to increase the performance of skilled players, or decrease the performance of unskilled players
Define Social loafing
individual performance decreases when on a team
Define social comparison theory
people evaluate themselves by comparing themselves to others, particularly to peers.
define social analgesia
an individual may emulate his/her behavior and perception after comparing to another's; e.g. in shock treatments, reported less pain when others experienced high pain tolerance
describe social conformity
being influenced by other's decision dispite our own observations. e.g. Asch experiment of three unequal lines.
describe minority influence
a consistent minority is perceived as having more significant influence than others in the group
Group Think
"refers to a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment that results from in-group pressures."
Group attributional error
similar to fundamental attribution error, but the error is expressed about group behavior not just individual behavior: "wins as a team, lose as a team"
group polaarization
group discussions amplify the inclinations of group members. e.g. after group discussion on risk seeking, more members willing to be risk seekers
How can one compensate for group think?
encourage every member to express his/her opinion
How does overconfidence relate to accuracy?
people are generally overconfident and inaccurate. overconfidence diminishes as accuracy increases to 80%.
How can one reduce overconfidence?
+ repeat the judgment 200 times with feedback
+ articulate reasons why you might be right
+ Consider why you might be wrong
self-fulfilling prophecies
seeing evidence that confirms your hypothesis and ignores other alternative explainations
how does one compensate for self-fulfilling prophecies
+ look at both the confirming and disconfirming examples
+ Encourage disconfirming investigation
List 5 behavior traps
Time Traps (short term gains outweigh long term consequences)
Ignorance Traps (unknown consequences)
Investment Traps (continuing with sunk costs)
Deterioration traps (changing costs)
Collective Traps (prisoners’ dilemma)
how does one compensate for behavior traps
Remove the emotional components in the trap

Create predefined limits

Add emotional components to positive behavior
explain attribution theory
explanations of preceived cause of action and outcoumes; people generally attribute cause to a personal attribute, a temporal attribute, or an entity (situational) attribute.
using fundamental attribution error, compare an observer's perception of cause and effect to a participants perception
The observer sees the cause as inherent to the person involved, the participant see the cause a determined by situational considerations; for observers the actor is salient, for actors the situation is salient.
Define fundamental attribution error
belief that people are more salient than time or situation, so cause and affect are attributed more to people's disposition than to time or situation.
True or false
People deviate from predictions of attribution theory by disregarding consensus information.
true
Define "self-serving" bias
The bias to attribute successes to one's abilities and to attribute failures to situational causes