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16 Cards in this Set

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Cervical enlargement
Extends from the vertebral bodies of approximately C3-C7
Lumbosacral enlargement
Occurs within the lower thoracic region.
Dorsal and Ventral Rami
Each nerves divides into these after emerging from the spinal cord,
Contain both motor and sensory fibers
Cervical plexus
From upper four ventral rami of C1-C4 to innervate from the neck, lower part of the face and the ear, the side of the scalp and the upper thoracic area.
Phrenic nerve
Major branch of the cervical plexus, formed by the branches of C3, C4, and upper division of C5.
Descends down neck;
Passes through thoracic aperture
Continues inferiorly to the diaphram, together with the pericardiophrenic vessels, through the anterior hilum between the mediastinal pleura and the pericardium
Left and right phrenic nerves can be different in length
Left phrenic nerve
Courses lateral to the left ventricle of the heart
Right phrenic nerve
Runs along the lateral wall of the superior vena cava and right atrium of the heart.
Brachial Plexus
The brachial plexus is a network of nerve fibers, running from the spine, formed by the ventral rami of the lower four cervical and first thoracic nerve roots (C5-T1). It proceeds through the neck, the axilla (armpit region), and into the arm.
The brachial plexus is responsible for cutaneous and muscular innervation of the entire upper limb, with two exceptions: the trapezius muscle innervated by the spinal accessory nerve (CN XI) and an area of skin near the axilla innervated by the intercostobrachial nerve.
Lesions can lead to severe functional impairment. [1
Three vertical columns of the Erector spinae muscle group
Iliocostalis layer (lateral,
Longissimus layer (intermediate column)
Spinalis (medial column)
Longissimus Muscles
Run superiorly to insert into the tips of the transverse processes of the thoracic and cervical regions, the angles of the ribs and the mastoid process.
Spinalis muscle group
Narrow; extends from the spinous processes of the upper lumbar and lower thoracic region. The cervicis and capitis portion of the muscle are inseparable from the semispinalis of the transversospinal group.
Transversospinal Muscles
Several short muscles that are located in the groove between the transverse and spinous processes of the vertebrae;
Arise from the thoracic and cervical transperse processes and insert on the occipital bone and spinous processes in the thoracic and cervical regions;
Form the largest muscle mass in the posterior portion of the neck.
Consist of many fibrous bundles that extend the full length of the spine and are the most prominent in the lumbar region
Connect the lamina of one vertebra to the transverse process of the vertebra below.
Best developed in the thoracic region
Quadratus Lumborum and Psoas Muscles
Two muscles commonly visualized in the lumbar region of the spine
Psoas considered abdominal muscles.