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135 Cards in this Set

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Developmentally Appropriate Practice: the 3 questions to ask
age appropriate, individually appropriate, culturally appropriate
age appropriate
is it an appropriate expectation for that age---need to know typical development
individually appropriate
does it fit each child's unique needs
culturally appropriate
behavioral expectations---things can differ greatly from culture to culture
developmentally appropriate practice apply to special needs
it is most important to be individually appropriate---you can't stick to age expectations when a disorder sets them back
whole child learning
foster competence in children in ALL domains--learn in all domains simultaneously
everything!! the moment they walk into the classroom to the moment they walk out---teach directions, peer communications, play, etc.
parent's view of play
the anti-play view is coming back---sometimes viewed as a waste of time---people of minorities and low SES most likely to hold this view---anti public school retroic---low test scores, acheievement gap---push to go back to the basics, and didactic approach to education
ec/ecse teacher's view of play
influenced by training--what you were trained is what you believe, the focus on state and national standards influences view of play--many people in EC have no EC background
administrators view of play
often oppose play or view as break from academic work--often have very little background or understanding in EC, see play as recess, ---BUT this is all you will see if you arent trained to see what's there
what does this object do? explore to try to understand the characteristics of an object or environment--low functioning---more exploration ---explorations MORE SERIOUS---COMES BEFORE PLAY
Play---what is it
Fluid and abstract--difficult to define, over 100 different dictinoary definitions, NEARLY ANYTHING CAN BE DEFINED AS PLAY, DEPENDING ON HOW IT IS FRAMED--switch back and forth to play often, if a child says it's play IT IS
play different than exploration
play to generate stimulation---what can i do with this thing?---play has more positive affect
toys and exploration
the newer the toy is, the more exploration they will have to do
characteristics of play
positive affect, nonliterality, intrinsic notivation, process orientation , freely chosen
positive affect
kids smiling, happy fun
play frame--set apart from everyday world and activities
intrinsic motivation
do it because it makes you feel good
process orientation
its about the process, not end goals
freely chosen
it's play you chose to do, really important as to how kids view what they're doing
functions of play
imagination, creative problem solving, identity, self expression, social belonging/bonding, physicaly well being
play is the child's work
work may or may not be freely chosen--not processes oriented--work is goal oriented--if we want people to value play, we have to learn how to articulate play and what we learn from it
the 3 r's of development
play reflects, reinforces and and results in development
play reflects
choices about play reflect something on their current developmental stage
play reinforces
children practice skills they are learning through play--expands skills
play results
learn alternative strategies that may be more effective--expand on concepts, roles and skills
physical and manipulative play
babies have reflex that disables them from grasping, then have difficulties letting go
locomotor play
includes toys, objects---btwn 1 and 2 years, can manip more because can use both hands---preschool level, much more coordinated--don't have to oncentrate so hard (girls and boys equal)
rough and tumble play
superher play, war play, pretend fighting--not having intent to actually harm, tough noises, fighting, wrestling noiese, often prhibited because of space and noise issues
importance? sets up social and physcial boundaries, understand certain sequences better, exercies, imagination, safe and soially acceptable way to address natural aggressiveness
object manipulation (devl of object play)
once child has good motor control, child has better and more control over object then can generalize actions to variety of toys
exploratory play (object devl)
9 months, mouthing and banging simple forms of exploratory play--exploring toys and objects--more novel and the more complex, the more exploration that is needed
constructive play
by age 4, 50% of time is spent in constructive play
block play development
18-24 months: line them up--make a tower, explore blocks--conceptualize what they can do with them
later, move to labeling what hey are making--final stage, bluiding structure that is incorportated into sociodramatic play
development of symbolic play
Prior to 15/16 months: generally takes an older play partner to start pretend play
15-20 months: simple, familar actions, imitated (reciprocal)
20-24 months: vocalie about play, offereing tyos, more recip engage
24-30 months: simple theme developing-mutual agreements
30-36 months: more role adoption-pretend to be mommies
preschool years: very elaborate and corrdinated play many more details, shemes invloved
pretend actions/objects (PIAGET)
12 months: self as agent: pretending-I am the agent of pretending very begining of symbolic play
18 months: outer directed or true symbolic play (all you need for true symbolic--acording to piaget) agent of pretending is SOMETHING OR SOMEONE other than myself (pretending to have a puppy drink) NEED THIS FOR TRUE PRETEND SYMBOLIC PLAY PRETEND ACTION ONTO SOMEONE OR SOMETHING ELSE
object, person, place--need to have some level of rep though--substitution symbolism
best WAY to justify play in EC classroom
need to learn that everything reps something
we can tell a lot about symbolic play by looking at what they are transforming
object trans
first transformation: dvelop early 13-14 months
person trans
role enactment
place trans
chaning substituting place---loft into puppy store--highest level---don't need object--just use action
level of sophistication in trans
depends on when person and place come----when the pretend object becomes more an dmore far off from real
roles and themes
role enactment beings sometime during the third year
relfects an awareness of others, role attributes, relationships, and role appropriate actions
types of roles
funtional, relational, character and peripheral
pretending to be a mom, vaccuuming, very familar role child has seen many times and STANDS BY ITSELF
familiar role, but shows understanding of RELATIONSHIP of ROLES
father removed from child's actual experience--doctor, hospital, mcdonalds, teacher--from there, superheros, chacters, get more creative in these roles
most complex--may not adopt, but will talk about talking through what happens in roles without actually doing it
silmansky's components of sociodramatic play
two or more children, language (meta and pretend), transformations, persistence, roel adoption
sociodramtic play
combines social and dramatic-social, 2 or more children, one of the highest levels of play, often used together with contructive
meta language
communicating about play that is going to take place
pretend lang
lang acutally use during play frame
development of social play
infants need more sophisticated play partner to keep play going---engage in pretend play wiht mom and dad, sibs
tyos often serve as a mediator for toddler social play
levels of social play (parten)
solitary, paralle, associative, cooperative---develop in persistent order
1st to develop (2-2.5 years) playing by yourself
play next to another child (similar toys/activities) but no indication of other child exists
play together, talk to each other, loosely organized, little effort to structure water table, trucks
highly structured and organized, discussion negotiation, definite effort to contorl play group--common role adoption---don't tolerate well with kids floating in and out of group
controversy over levels of social play
research doesn't support the hierarchical nature parten describes--don't necesarily drop off or are they less sophisticated---all can be sophisticated --can back down to others once they have mastered all
subcatergories of solitary play
reticent, sol active and sol passive
solitary reticent
onlooking or observing the child is not actually playing---includes wandering
sol active
dramatic play that doesn't involve others
sol passive
solitary constructive
levels of cognitive play (piaget)
funtional, costructive, dramatic, games with rules
functional cognitive
practice play--learning skills and using it over and oer again
constructive cognitive
making or creating something--goal directed play
dramatic cognitive
games with rules
piaget considers highest---understanding rules and applying them
how can you assess play
narratie accounts, checklists, rating scales, technology, documentation
social competence
social understanding, accurately perecieve social world--highly integrated with social play
social cognition
being able to think socially---need this to be socially competent
social skills needed for play
turn-taking, sharing, cooperation, perspective taking, neogitation, conflict resolution
perspective taking
the ability to simultatneously see things from others points of view while keeping in mind one's own view
levels of perspective taking
1st level: only see your view
2nd level: realize ppl don't think same but don't know what they are
3rd level: when can identify both and understand that other thinks about you too
why is perspective taking so important
without it, it will be really difficult to come up wiht conflict resolution strategies--foundation for everything really
removing yourself from the center--sociodramatic play may hasten this process
social competence correlates
social play require children to have certain level of social competence
positive correlations between group dramatic play and social skills
children who engage in high levels of sociodramtic play exhibit higher leels of proscoail behavior
parallel constructive play correlated significantly with teacher ratings of social competence and social problem solving
next to developmental age, what is the single best predictor of how children will react in any given situation?
GENDER!! true throughout the lifespan
physical play
gross and fine muscle activity or the use of boyd parts in play
differences in physical play
emerge clearly between the age of 4 and 5---rough and tumble play, tag, wrestle--boys higher
outside: boys higher
girls: sendentary things
who's the most boisterous
large boy and large mix groups, and small boy and small mix
who uses the most physical space
boys 1.2-1.6 times as much space as girls, boys enter more space than girls
who's more likely to engage in physical fighting
who's the most aggressive
depends on the type of agression---boys physical, girls relational
hostile aggression
can be physical or relational--mad at smeone because they did soething or you think they did something
girls aggression often used for
boys often more
instrumentally aggressive---goal oriented---they want something
who's the most socialble
depends on what type of socialbility you are talking about
who are children likely to choose as playmates
same sex peers---50% of the time
15% is opposite, 35% is both
when asking children, they say they wouldn't play with opposite sex but they do
when are children most likely to cross gender play
toddlers more likely than preschoolers, girls show gender prefs earlier but level off
boys gender prefs get stronger
constructive play pretty neutral
cognitive resonance theory
children develop gender identity, value it, then develop gender constancy and want to play wiht kids like them, because of value
gender typed toy theory
boys/girls drawn to/prefer different types of tyos--play with people that play with same things you do
behavioral compatibility theory
boys ore ative, boisterous, pysical which may amek some girls uncomfrotable again, choose to play with those they are comfortable with
communication/interaction gender diffs
wants: boys more direct/demanding and assertive
girls: much more verbal, much less direct, barter, prosocial behavior
conversations: girls more verbal, rely on a lot of conversations: boys more competetive
role adoption/themes gender diffs
girls: more domestic roles--home, family, nurturing--retain this preference
boys: superheroes, danger things, adopt dominat roles
object play gender diffs
diffs in toy preferences, diffs in play types, ways toys are used
boys: action figures, construction toys, anything with wheels, push/pull toys, weapons
girls: dolls, kitchen toys, table top activities, coloring, bead,
puzzles are equal
constructive play gender
gender equal, though functional play is higher in boys
pretend play gender diffs
little diffs in amounts or fantasy ability--transformational ability is also pretty equal
girls more verbal @ an earlier age, why some think girls have more fantasy
sohpistication and complexity similar

what age and primarily what gender imaginary friends
more girls than boys--don't have age
teachers reprimand and sensor boys more
characteristics of imaginary friends
over 50% of time, same age and gener, girls have boys much more often than boys have girls
impact of imaginary friends on child's play
at preschool level, brighter, engage in more fantasy play, stable behavior, some say more prosocial, creative, better play skills
possible reasons for gender differences
socialization by parents different for boys and girls, treat boys and girls differently, moms and dads treat differently
socialization by peers: very explicit abot what you can and can't do
teachers: more likely to be involved when stereotypical play
child attributes
biological differences
gender implications for teachers
consider and respect fam values, provide equal number of toys, engage children in traditional gender roles, provide equal opportunities, value play choices
personality dimensions/differences
certain characteristics of an indiiduals behavior that
are consistent
persist across a wide range of situations
are stable over time
are not caused by differeneces in cognitive maturity
personality differencces in play
some children gravitate to using more objects in play, some use more people, amounts of friends differ, cognitive style, playfulness, fantasy makin gpredispotiiona and imaginative play styles
field independent
not distracted by outside environment--more object oriented
field dependent
get easily distracted, more ppl oriented
more playfulness equals more fantasy, better able to suspend reality, more humor, jokes
depressed children and play
showed little symbolic play
displayedmore nonplay behaviors
some theorist consider imaginative play/creativity to be roots of mental health and social adjustment
teacher involvement
HOW teachers interact with children during play is more important than HOW MUCH they interact
quality vs. quantity--more is not always better
words to the wise about how to be involved
don't be intrusive
do not overpower the play
do not overstructure the play
do not interupt the play to teach academic concepts
observe before becoming involved
wait to be invited
play training outside intervention
teacher remains outside the play frameand makes comments and suggestions aimed at encouraging socidramatic play (can do this with any type of play)
inside intervention play training
teacher takes dominant role and and engages in play
thematic fantasy play play training
adult reads a story, assigns role, and helps children act out roles, teacher may take role, but often is narrator--helps kids get familiar with books---good way to get kids involved who usually dont become involved
onlooker adult role
teacher observes children, occasionally nod or give signs of approval, do not interrupt or join in play, snds message tha play is important, helps teachers understand play and children's level of development, allows teachers to choose appropriate levels of involvement
never enter play, learn where children are devel, plan appro interventions,
stage manager
help children prepare
lend assistance and suggestions
do not enter play
use scaffolding--one of the best times
help organize
ongoing assisstence
teachers most comfortable with this--sometimes lose our own ability to play and feel silly when in the acutal roles
teacher enters play
equal player
assumes minor role
models sociodram play skills
expands play by asking for things
play leader
enters play
dominant role
usefuly when there is difficulty starting play or play is getting stuck
extends, enriches adds tensino or new elements
superhero play most likely to get stuck--be fam with themes kids are using, add new plots, once play gets going, get out of that role
not onlooker, pay little attentino other than safety monitors who issue verbal warnings, use time for paperwork and chatting---all prep should be done BEFORE children get there
controls the play
remain and sidelines and directs play
children tend to leave the area
notice diffs between director role and play leader role
telling kids what to do, directing and dominating--types of kids that get rejected from play
play is interupted to teach academic concepts or interjet reality
soetimes referred to as spokesperson for reality
reactions from children varied, depending upon circumstances
how do we decide to become involved
observe, decide on purpose or goal, choose appropriate level, remain felixble, switch from more to less intrusive roles when the play is underway
everything that surrounds event/behavior occuring BROF: entire situation, beavior/event part of context everything is intertwined
micro, meso, exo, macro
four contexts that maximize play possibilities
places rich in experience, places rich in play, places rich in teaching, places rich with people
places rich with experience
many opportunities for children to experiece, especially new things--experiementing
places rich in pay
variety of play situations, materials and spaces for play
places rich in teaching
teachers have lots of knowledge, variety and interact with the kids
places rich with people
children eposed to a wide variety of ppl with diverse backgrounds and experiences
spatial density
amount of space available per child
formula: area of room-unusable space/number of children=spatial density

room area= width x length
unusable space: width x length of furniture and area too small for play
spatial density affects on play
decreased amounts of motor play when density decreased
less group play and more aggressive plays
open materials
low structure-allow children many ways to use them--blocks, sand, tinker toys, duplos--no set way to use materials
closed materials
high structure-used in a very limited manner--puzzles, books, video games
the more realistic, the more closed it is
high realism--barbie, exact replicas, very deatils
low realism-- can be used in a variety of ways--non scripted rag dolls
relationship between toys and social interaction
amount of toys correltated with level of social interaction in play---more toys, less interaction
biggest barrier to successful inclusion
teacher attitudes!!!---lack of knowledge on inclusion
social cognition
understanding social world
effect of proximity alone?
proximity alone will not result in maximum success
inclusion strategies
chidlren are first and foremost, children
do not stereotype
whole child lens
co teaching ec and ecse
adapt the enviro
provide space cues
warn of transistion
allow enough time for all chidren to experience success
remove small hazards
peer mediated strategies
appropriate materials