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84 Cards in this Set

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Social cognition
A child's understanding of social behavior. How the child thinks, reasons, and understands both his/her behavior and the behavior of others
social competence
the child's ability to initiate and maintain satisfying reciprocal relationships with peers
What is the relationship betwee social cognition and social competence?
Child's social competence is directly related to his/her level of social cognition. How accurate a child's understanding is translates into good social competence, and the more sucessful they will be in forming future relationships.
How do children aquire social competence?
By direct experience, and exploration as they try out new ways of approaching adults and peers. Also through trial and error, children discover what is and isn't successful
Preschoolers define friendships
based on common interests and often use friendship as a bargaining tool (relational aggression)
young primary age children base friendships
begin to consider personal attributes along with common interests
friendships and proximity
friendships are also often defined by proximity, those who say they are friends are often close to each other, and when not, are often seen looking for each other
Skills necessary for making and sustaining friendships
ability to initate interaction, ability to repsond to peer intiation, ability to maintain relationship, ability to deal with conflict
What can lead to social difficulties?
aggression, lack of approach skills, language, use of reciprocity, appearence, shyness, attachment issues, cultural norms
perspective taking
being able to see and understand that not every one thinks like you, and that other people have different points of view
What can teachers do to help build a child's social competency?
Don't use cutsey statements, and don't overuse the word friend.
Help children develop conflict resolution strategies, teach and model and give children words to use.
Help children develop impluse control--delayed gratification, inhibit physcial action, tolerate frustration, develop ego resiliency.
Teach/model skills for being included--maintain proximity, parralel play, ask questions and comment on the play.
Allow children to choose friends
Help children learn intent
Honor children's choices.
Make social competence a classroom priority.
How do children aquire self concept?
during year one, infant realizes that they are a separate individual. slowly, over time, begins to observe and gather info regarding physical appearence, gender, abilities, personal appearence, interpersonal skills, etc. then, info is processed and added to the concept of the self.
Define looking glass self
the attitudes a child holds about him/herself are a direct reflection of what the child perceives others to believe about him/her. attitudes are formed by listening, interacting, and by parenting styles
what is the difference between self concept and self esteem
self concept is how a child sees him/herself, self esteem is how that child feels abotu the concept that has formed
what is necessary for children to develop impulse control?
delay gratification, inhibit physical actions, tolerate frustrations, develop ego-resiliency
what is the relationship between impulse control and aggression?
it's one of the developmental factors affecting aggression. typically, the less impulse control one has, the more aggressive they may be.
What is guidance
teaching, helping, directing, advice, support, understand, lead, guide and model
Natural consequences
occurs naturally as a result of the child's choice. example, if a child chooses to run with a cup of juice in their hand, they may very well spill it. appropriate as long as the child isn't hurt
Logical consequences
engineered by teacher and/or parents. logically fit the behavior
any consequence that isn't logically related to the behavio
redirect child's behavior positively. examples: child is waving paint brush around...redirect and explain paint brush should stay close to the paper
punishment and what it teaches
punishment is any consequence that isn't logically related to the teaches kids that people who are bigger, stronger and more powerful can force people who are smaller and weaker to do what they want them to do. punishment only works short term in the presence of the teacher
what are the four components of the guidance system
environment, adults, group and child
how adult component of guidance system affects child
temperament, philosophy/view of children, values of that dult, flexibility, expectations for structure, helper, facilitator, amount of education and type, past experiences, cultural competence
how child component of guidance system affects child
culture, temperament, independence/autonomy, individual preferences, age and developmental level, prior experiences with groups and what types, tire, hungry, home environment, gender, special needs, # of siblings,
group component of guidance system
teacher ratio, culture, size, ages, single age, multi age, gener, special nees, types of interacionts, structure of day, expectations for group
environment component of guidance system
overcrowding, size, adequate toys, enough toys, classroom setups, acessibility, safety, clear, consisten adn appro rules and expectations, indirect lighting
what is guidance system components significance for teachers?
don't just focus on the child.---they are only one component, and you shouldn't just focus on changing order to be effective, need to find out what's going on behind the behavior
goals and consistency
immediate, short, long and overall goals should all be consistent...everything needs to have the overall goal in mind
credible language
sometimes referred to as authentic communication. statements are clear, unambiguous, honest, and present the true meaning of friendship
perspective taking
the ability to simultaneously see things from other's points of view while keeping in mind one's own view
what is prosocial behavior?
behavior tht benefits another person or animal. prosocial behavior includes sharing, helping and cooperating, without expecting anything in return.
what motivates prosocial behavior?
genuine feelings fo empathic concern, the ability to imagine the innter experience of someone in need, a sense of responsibility for relieving the other's distress, alturism
what does toddler prosocial behavior look like?
when dad takes care of his houseplants, minda's job i s to help by misting th eplants needing misture. after lunch, her 12 year old bro handed her plate to her and said "take you place over to the dishwasher, minda....thanks!" she helped her mother feed the bran cats and watched as her mom picked up puddles, cat whose leg was cut. mom said ooh, come here and let me take care of your cut. please get that cloth for mommy, minda. i'll bet that pudles leg hurts, and i tin she might be afraid , too. so we have to tell her ti's going to be ok. toddler prosocial behavior is more of they help because they are asked to. a lot of helping
what does preschool prosocial behavior look like?
more of sharing/helping with the intent to share and help
prosocial behavior in elementary school
helping because asked, want to feel important
what is necessary developmentally for children to act prosocially?
specific cognitive competencies, emotional competencies and specific skills of sharing and helping someone else.
cognitive competencies that develop?
realizing you are an indiviudal, perspective taking, see yourself as a person who can make things happen, language skills, sopphisticated memory
emotional competencies that develop
decoding emotion in another's face, empathy,
how do impulse control, perspective taking, prosocial and understanding of intent affect aggression
all developmental factors that impact how aggressive someone is....all develop at different times too
what are the different types of aggression?
venting, active ressitance, expressive, revenge, avoidance
what do researchers believe is necessary for behavior to be considered too aggression?
what are different types of aggression from book?
instrumental, hostile, and accidental
instrumental aggression
aggressive behavior that is aimed at obtaining or getting back some obejct territory or privilege
hostile aggression
often strikes an observer as a nasty, distasteful sort of vengeful behavior, some froms of hostile aggression are tinged with evil
accidental aggression
unintentional aggression
how does age and developmental level affect aggression
changes what aggression looks like. 2 years: push, bite, yelling, scream, grab, hit, pinch, kick, sit on each other
3 years: screaming, hitting, icking, pushing, and shoving
4-5 years: relational aggression, tattling, push/shove, more sophisticated physical forms like headlocking
aggression and genetic
everyone has ability to be angry...may be some genetic links that predispose some people..twins studies
advantages of traditional playground
easy to maintain, encourage motor play
disadvantages of traditional play
safety! they get hot--usually steel, hard to supervise, usually in the sun, single use pieces of equipment--not much room for creativity
advantages of adventure playgrounds
use imagination, fcilitate interaction, eye hand coordination gross motor skills, better supervised, safer
disadvantages of adventure playgrounds
money--costs a lot--supervision always needed, age limited, no toddlers, imitation sin strength, somewhat limited for preschoolers too
advantages of modern/contemporary playgrounds
variety of sun and shade, plastic, structures and linkages, safer, different structures for diff ages, multi use, encourage cooperation, good physical development, interaction, variety of surfaces
Criteria for playground equipment and design
promote different types of play
promote growth and development--structures that allow more than one child--gross motor MOST importnat
address diff leels of play and skill development
encourage interaction
avoid static equipment
sun and shade
variety of ground surfaces
be accessible
variety of toys and materals in addition to large equip
sand and water
what is multicultural curriculumm
teach children about other cultures so they learn ot respect each other and not develop prejudices: result: tourist curriculum--children learn abot other cultures through celbrations, artifacts, food, traditional clothings: problem: tourist curriculum is patronizing, trivializing and promotes stereotypes
what is anti-bias curriculum
helps children to recognize, value and respect both similarities and differences between self and others--much broader than culture, anti-bias curriculum encompasses life style, race, culture, preferences and varyin gability levels--rather than a pull out approach, anti bias curriculum is woven into and integrated throughout the entire curriculum
how can antibias curric help self-esteem
because it focuses on valuing all similarities and differences, not exploiting won't feel like they are outsiders
celebrating holidays
don't do it!! very disrespectful to celebrate holidays that aren't a part of your culture
trivializing and patronizing-classrooms should welcome all students
what are the two types of motor development
locomotor and directed reach and grasp
locomotor development
beings with the child gaining head control and ultimately results in the child's ability to walk and run
directed reach and grasp
allows the child to ultimately manipulate increasingly small and complex objects
motor development proceeds in four ways--list and describe
cephalo-to-caudal (head to toe)
promixmal-to- distal (midline to extremities)
flexion-to-extension (bending before straightening)
reflexive to volitional (reflex to voluntary)
trace the development of sitting
during the first 4 weeks, baby's head drops froward and back is completely rounded
at 4-6 weeks, the back is still rounded bu there is eveidence of beginning head control
8-12 weeks back is still rounded, raises head well but head bobs forward. knees are flexed but baby can sit a few seconds if proped
16-20 weeks the back is straighter, head i erect and doesn't wobble. baby can sit for 30 minutes if well supported
6-7 months the baby sites steadily through briefly without support
by the 10th month babcy can lower herself into sitting position
trace the development of standing
until about 14 weeks baby presents limp, passive response when pulled past a sitting position
16-24 weeks development begins in lower extremities and baby begins pushing upward. he/she raises bottoms but cnnot sustain the position
36-44 weeks infant extends lower extremeities and attains a somewhat erect posture but a complete vertical position cannot yet be achieved
48-52 weeks the baby maintinas an erect, vertical position but movements are made with effort
trace the development of walking
until around 14 weeks, baby is limp and resists support on her feet
18-24 weeks the head i smore in lin ewith the body, baby stamps foot and supports most of her weight
40 weeks most infants cruise (walk around furnitrue) using a wide stance with toes pointed out
by 18 months, children are able to walk and run though still use a wide stance with flat feet (most babies begin walking must earlier)
trace development of reaching
during first 3 or so months, infant may move hand toward an object bu not attempt to grasp. hands are still fisted
by 4th month hands are open. baby extends hands towards object, may make contact, but not attempt to grasp. baby may look back and forth from hand to object
around 5 motnhs visually guided reach develops
trace development of grasping
during first 3 months, grasp is reflective
voluntary grasp begins around 3 months when toy is very near or on hand
5-7 months the whol hands operate as a single unit and hands are used together to improve efficiency
7 months the child uses hand to hand transfore across midline. voluntary release dvelops. directe release beings later during the first year
9-10 months baby uses a palmer grasp and nis capable of trunk rotation
11-15 months baby uses pincer and refined pincer grasp
19 months is generaly first vidence of hand dominance (not necessary dterminant of handedness later in life)
why no competition
childen are at different levels of physcial development
reward for movement should be in the movement itself
reward should never be at someone else's expense
the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
how much vigorous exercise is necessary in order to develop endurance
some research suggests at least four hours daily
3 components of movement that should be addressed in ec program
perceptual skills, phsycial traits, physical fitness
perceptual skills
children learn to perceive or see the environment which includes both objects and space
children also learn to perceive or see his her body in relation to objects and space
children learn this best by having the opportunity to play with many different objects in mayn different settings
children gain awareness of texture, size, weight, placement in space, etc.
physical traits
balance: ability to contorl one's body in many diff postures or positions without falling. balnce i a part of every physical act
coordination: is the ability to make various body parts work together. cordination is also a part of every physcial act
physical fitness
flexibility: range of motion in body joints--determines the degree to which we can stretch, bend, and move body segments such as trunk arms and legs
strength: ability to exert force--enough force to support the body
endurance: ability to participate in an activity for long periods of time without getting tired--require strong heart and circulatroy system--some research tells us that children need four hours of vigorous activity dail, last at least 2-3 minutes at a time
how would you plan the motor component of your program?
define limits and expectations of setting--boundaries of time and space, traffic flow pattern, quip or furniture to be used, esignated meeting place
define limits and expecations for the children: allow children to choose whether or not to be involved in an organized aciity, but not distrupt or distract other children. help children understand that if they hoose to participate they must listen and carry out the directions of the leader--help individual children verbalize personal needs and interests
stimulate interest in moving: provide activies which encourage children to use their phsycial skills, provide activities which have meaning to them, get invovled yourself!
acknowledge each child's motor activity: verbalize and imitate child's ideas and movements, use variations on child's movements, helps childrne who want ot participate but appear hesitant or afraid. acknowledge each child's accomplishment, spend time with children who dont' participate, observe child's physcial activity, een when child chooses to be outside of group
early controversies of computers in the classroom
computer activities were text heavy, drill and practice...passive, symbolic rather than concrete
why are old computer controversies less valid than they used to be
becaue the software has changed greatly for the better
tutor software
computer is the teacher and provides drill and practice instruction
tutee software
children are in control, send directions to the computer, resulting in drawing or movement on the screen
tool software
children are allowed to do different things with the computer
which software does naeyc consider most likely to elicit play behaviors
tutee and tool
guidelines for appropriate computer use in ec classroom
blend computer with what is happening in the classroom, rather than use in isolation or simply for playing games
place near other toys, activities and materials
choose appropriate software
choose software that can be both solitary and cooperative collaborative
view the computer as valuable and fun
plan! incorporate into curriculum
criteria for evaluating software
affirm child's diversity
reflect diverse cultures, languages, and ethnic heritages
come in muliples languages
relfect gender equity
contain people of color, differing ages, and abilites
portray diverse families and experiences
free of explicit adn brutal graphics
not threaten development
find productive methods to solve problems or correct mistakes
promote positive decision mking
give opportunities to develop sensitivities to children for other cultures or disabilities
develop positive repsonses to cultural and racial diversity
potential benefits from appropriate computer use
promote creative play and problem solving
allow child to conrol pacing and action
allow repetition and experimentation
provide conversation, collaboration and sharing
enable growth s proficiency occurs
expand play themes with isual and verabl prompts