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118 Cards in this Set

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Any of numerous synthetic or natural organic materials that are mostly thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers of high molecular weight and that can be molded, extruded, or drawn into objects, films, or filaments
plastic
any of numerous sold or semisolid organic substances prepared by polymerization and used with fillers, stabilizers, and other components to form plastics
resin
a relatively inert substance added to modify the bulk, strength, heat resistance, electrical resistance, or working properties of resin
filler
types of plastic:
a thin form of plastic, having a thickness very small in proportion to its length and width
sheeting
types of plastic:
sheeting haing a nominal thickness not greater than 10 mils
film
types of plastic:
a plastic capable of softening or fusing when heated without change in any inherent properties, and of hardening again when cooled
thermoplastic
types of plastic:
any class of thermoplastic resins used for casting or molding plastic parts that are exceptionally transparent, tough and resistant to weather and chemicals, or as the main ingrediant in coatings, adhesives, and caulking compounds.
trademark brands:
lucite and plexiglass
acrylic resin
types of plastic:
a tough, transparent thermoplastic characterized by its high-impact strength and used for lighting fixtures, safety glazing, and hardware
Polycarbonate
types of plastic:
any of various tough, flexible plastics made from polyvinyl resin
vinyl
types of plastic:
a white, water-insoluble thermoplastic widely used in the manufacture of floor coverings, insulation, and piping
Polyvinyl Chloride
types of plastic:
a thermoplastic resin used chiefly as the interlayer of safety glass
Polyvinyl Butyral
types of plastic:
any of a class of thermoplastics characterized by extreme toughness, strength, and elasticity and capable of being extruded into filaments, fibers, and sheets
Nylon
types of plastic:
any of various thermoplastic or thermosetting resins used in flexible and rigid forms, elastomers, and resins for sealants, adhersives, and coatings
Pollyurethane
types of plastic:
any of a groupd of thermosetting resins used in the manufacture of plastics and textile fibers
polyester
types of plastic:
a polyester reinforced with glas fibers and used in translucent roofs and skylights, and molded plumbing fixtures
Fiberglass-reinforced plastic
types of plastic:
a trademark for a brand of strong wrinkle resistant polyester fiber
Dacron
types of plastic:
trademark for a brand of strong, thin polyester film used in photography, recording tapes, and electrical insulation
Mylar
types of plastic:
trademark for a brand of dark phenolic resin, invented by Dr. Leo Baekeland in 1916, and is used for telephone receivers, radio cabinets, electric insulators and molded plastic hardware
Bakelite
a product made my uniting two or more layers of material by an adhesive or other means, as plywood and plastic laminate
laminate
a hard surfacing material consisting of superposed layers of paper impregnated with melamine and phenolic resins, fused together under heat and pressure
--formica
plastic laminate
a material made by chemicaly treating and toughening natural rubber, valued for its elasticity, nonconduction of electricity, and resistance to shock and moisture.
rubber
a hard, brittle, usually transparent or translucent substance, produced by fusing silica together with a flux and a stabilizer into a mass that cools to a rigid condition without crystallization
glass
types of glass:
an old form of window glass formed by blowing ans whirling a hollow sphere of glass into a flat, circular disk with a center lump left by the worker's rod
crown glass
types of glass:
a flat, soda-lime-silca glass fabricated by drawing the molten glass from a furnace (drawn glass) or by forming a cylinder, dividing it lengthwise, and flattening it (cylinder glass)
some distortion of vision
sheet glass
types of glass:
a flat, soda-lime-silca glass formed by rolling molten glass into a plate (rolled glass) that is subsequently ground and polished after coating
plate glass
types of glass:
a flat, soda-lime-silca glass that is extremely smooth and nearly distortion-free, manufactured by pouring molten glass onto a surface of molten tin and allowing it to cool slowly
successor to plate glass
majority of flat glass production
float glass
types of glass:
a glass unit consisting of two or more sheets of glass seperated by hermetically-sealed airspaces
insulating glass
glass having a chemical admixture to absorb a portion of the radiant heat and visible light that strike it
-iron oxide gives the flass a pale blue-green tint
-cobalt oxide and nikel imparts a grayish tint
-selenium infuses and bronze tint
Tinted glass
glass having a thin, translucent metallic coating bonded to the exterior or interior surface to reflect a portion of the light and radiant heat that strike it
reflective glass
laminated glass having exceptional tensile and impact strength, consisting of multiple piles of flass bonded under heat and pressure to interlayers of resin
security glass
the panes of sheets of glass or other transparent material made to be set in frames, as in windows, doors, or mirrors
glazing
a mixture of solid pigment susupended in a liquid vehicle, applied as a thin, usually opaque coating to a surface for protection or decoration
paint
types of paint:
a paint in which the vehicle is a drying oil
--drying oil is any of various oily, organic liquids that form a tough elastic film when exposed in a thing layer to air
oil paint
a paint in which the vehicle is alkyd resin
--alkyd resin:synthetic resins derived from a polyvalent alcohol in reaction with organic acid...used cheifly in adhesives and paints
alkyd paint
types of paint:
a paint having an epoxy resin as a binder for increased resistance to abrasion, corrosion and chemicals
epoxy paint
a paint having a latex binder that coalesces as water evaporates from the emulsion
latex--synthetic rubber or plastic
latex paint
types of paint:
a paint or primer specially formulated with rust-inhibiting pigments to prevent or reduce the corrosion of metal surfaces
anticorrosive paint
types of paint:
a paint specially formulated with silicone, polyvinyl chloride, or other substances to reduce the flame-spread of combustible material
fire-retardant paint
types of paint:
a paint specially formulated with silicone resins to withstand high temperatures
heat-resistance paint
paint finish:
the degree of surface luster or a dried paint film, ranging in decreasing order of glass from high gloss, semi gloss, eggshell to flat.
gloss
paint finishes:
having a brilliant sheen or luster
high gloss
paint finishes:
having a moderate, satiny luster producing a finish midway between high gloss and eggshell
also called satin
semi gloss
paint finishes:
having little or no gloss, producing a finish midway between semi gloss and flat
eggshell
paint finishes:
without glass or sheen
flat
paint finishes:
any paint or varnish drying into a very smooth, hard, usually glossy finish
enamel
a solution of dye or suspension of pigment in a vehicle, applied to penetrate and color a wood surface without obscuring the grain
stain
a liquid preparation consisting of resin dissolved in an oil (oil varnish) or in alcohol (spirit varnish), that when spread and allowed to dry forms a hard, lustrous, usually transparent coating
varnish
any of various clear or colored synthetic coatings consisting of nitrocellulose or other cellulose derivative dissolved in a solvent that dries up by evaporation to form a high-gloss film
lacquer
an artificial, stonelike building material made by mixing cement and various mineral aggregated with sufficient water to cause the cement to set and bind the entire mass
concrete
a calcined mixture of clay and limstone, finely pulverized and used as an ingredient in concrete
cement
the water used in a concrete or mortar mix, exclusive of any absorbed by the aggregate and free of such harmful substances as organic material, clay, and salts
--water for drinking is generally acceptable
mixing water
any of various hard, inert, mineral materials, as sand and gravel, added to a cement paste, to make concrete or mortar
aggregate
types of aggregates--size
consisting of sand
fine aggregate
types of aggregates--size
consisting of crushed stone, gravel, or blast-furnace slag
coarse aggregate
having a particle size distribution characterized by uniform grading
graded aggregate
a tough, fibrous celllular substance that make up most of the stems and branches of trees beneath the bark
wood
the tough external covering of a woddy stem, branch, or root, composed of a living inner layer called phloem and an outer bark of corking, dead tissue
bark
a layer of tissue that carries food from the leave to the growing parts of a tree
phloem
a thing layer of reproductive tissue between the phloem on the outside and new xylem on the inside of stems, branches, and roots
cambium
the soft, central core about which first growth takes place in a newly formed stem
pith
the woody tissue of a tree that provides support , and conducts water and mineral nutrients upward from the roots
xylem
the younger, softer, living portion of wood between the cambium and heartwood, comparabel in strength to the heartwood but usualy lighter in color, more permeable and less durable
sapwood
the older, harder, inactive core of a tree, usually darker, denser and more durable than the surrounding sapwood
heartwood
the softer, more porous portion of an annual ring that develops early in the growing season, characterized by large, thin walled cells
springwood
the harder, darker, less porous portion of an annual ring that develops late in the growing season, characterized by compact thick walled cells
summerwood
a tough, fibrous celllular substance that make up most of the stems and branches of trees beneath the bark
wood
the tough external covering of a woddy stem, branch, or root, composed of a living inner layer called phloem and an outer bark of corking, dead tissue
bark
a layer of tissue that carries food from the leave to the growing parts of a tree
phloem
a thing layer of reproductive tissue between the phloem on the outside and new xylem on the inside of stems, branches, and roots
cambium
the soft, central core about which first growth takes place in a newly formed stem
pith
the woody tissue of a tree that provides support , and conducts water and mineral nutrients upward from the roots
xylem
the younger, softer, living portion of wood between the cambium and heartwood, comparabel in strength to the heartwood but usualy lighter in color, more permeable and less durable
sapwood
the older, harder, inactive core of a tree, usually darker, denser and more durable than the surrounding sapwood
heartwood
the softer, more porous portion of an annual ring that develops early in the growing season, characterized by large, thin walled cells
springwood
the harder, darker, less porous portion of an annual ring that develops late in the growing season, characterized by compact thick walled cells
summerwood
a knot having annual rings intergrown with those of the surrounding wood; allowable in structural timber with certain size limits
live knot
a knot that is solid across its face, at least as hard as the surrounding wood, and undecayed
sound knot
a knot held firming in place by growth or position
tight knot
a knot having annual rings not intergrown with those of the surrounding wood; encasement may be partial or complete, but a dead knot is considered to be a defect since it can easily loosen or be knocked out
dead knot
any deviation from a plan or true surface of a board or panel, usually caused by eneven drying during the seasoning process or by a change in moisture content
warp
a curvature across the width or face of a wood piece, measured at the point of greatest deviation from a straight line drawn to form end to end of the piece
cup
a curvature along the length of a wood piece, measured at the point of greatest deviation from a straight line drawn from end to end of a piece
bow
a curvature along the edge of a wood piece, measured at the point of greatest deviation from a straight line from end to end of a piece
crook
a warp resulting from the turning of the edges of a wood piece in opposite directions
twist
a seperation along the grain of a wood piece, usually between the annual rings, caused by stresses on a tree while standing or during falling
shake
a well-defined opening between the annual rings of a softwood containing or having once contained solid or liquid pitch
pitch pocket
a lengthwise separation of wood across the annual rings, caused by uneven orrapid shrinkage during the seasoning process
check
a check that extends completely through a board or wood veneer
split
the presence of bark or absence of wood at the corner or along an edge of a piece
wane
an area on the surface of a board or panel missed by a plaining maching
skip
to saw quartered logs approximately at right angles to the annual rings
quartersaw
to saw a squared log into boards with evenly spaced parallel cuts
plain-saw
a cut made across the grain of the wood
crosscut
to saw wood in the direction of the grain (ripsaw)
rip
any of various substances for coating or impregnating wood in order to protect it against wood destroying fungi and insects
perservatives
an inorganic, water soluble compound used as a wood perservative, odorless and paintable
water borne perservative
an organic chamical dissolved in a petroleum iol carrier used as a wood perservative; has a persistent odor, is insoluble in water, and is highly toxic
oil borne perservative
an oily liquid or aromatic hydrocarbons obtained by the distilation of coal tar, used as a wood perservative for marine instalations or for severe exposure to wood destroying fungi and insects;has a penetrating odor and render wood unpaintable
creosote
a wood panel product made my bonding veneers together under heat and pressure, usually with the grain at right anglesto eacho other and symmetrical about the center ply
plywood
veneer grades:
the hightest grade of hardwood veneer, permitting only a few small burls, pin knots, and inconspicuous patches
premium grade
veneer grades:
a grade of hardwood veneer similar to premium grade except that matching of veneer faces is not required
good grade
veneer grades:
a sound, smooth hardwood veneer free of open defects but containing streaks, discoloration, patches, and small sound tight knots
sound grade
veneer grades:
a hardwood veneer grader permitting discolorations, streaks, patches, tight knots, small knotholds, and splits.
utility grade
veneer grades:
a grade of hardwood veneer similar to utility grade but permitting larger defects not affecting the strength or durability of the panel
backing grade
building with units of various natural of manufactured products such as stone, brick, or concrete block, usually with the use of mortar as a bonding agent
masonry
a masonry unit of clay, formed into a rectangular prism and hardened by drying in the sun or firing in a kiln
brick
forming a brick by molding relatively wet clay
soft mud process
brick formed in the soft-mud process with a mold lined with sand to prevent sticking, producing a matte-textured surface
sandstruck brick
brick formed in the soft-mud process with a mold lubricated with water to prevent sticking, producing a smooth, dense surface
waterstruck brick
forming brick by molding relatively dry clay under high pressure, resulting in sharp-edged smooth-surfaced bricks
dry-press process
a furnace or overn for burning, baking, or drying something, especially one for firing pottery, baking bricks or drying timber
kiln
brick made for general building purposes and not specially treated for color and texture, also called building brick
common brick
brick made of special clays for facing a wall, often treated to produce the deired color and surface texture; also called faced brick
facing brick
a brick made of fire clay and used for lining furnaces and fireplaces
firebrick
a dense, hard burned brick used especially for paving
clinker
a plastic mixture of lime or cement, or a combination of both, with sand and water, used as a bonding agent in masonry construction
mortar
a fluid cement mortar that will flow easily without segregation of the ingredients, used to fill narrow cavaties in masonry and consolidate the adjoining materials into a solid mass
grout
a precast masonry unit of portland cement, fine aggregate, and water, molding into various shapes
concrete masonry unit (CMU)