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23 Cards in this Set

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Photosynthetic eukaryote that uses chlorophyll a/b; develop from embryos protected by tissues of the parent plant; stores carbohydrates; haploid/diploid generations; MONOPHYLETIC
Plants (Plantae)
Possess well-developed vascular systems; conspicuous green structures of ferns and seed plants are the sporophytes
Lack leaves, stems, roots; Sporophyte is always dependent on gametophyte (permanently attached); gametophyte is eye-visible (photosynthetic structure)
Zygote through adult, multicellular diploid plant
Sporophyte generation
From spore through the adult, multicellular haploid plant to the gamete
Gametophyte generation
Closest living relatives of plants?
Charophytes (green algal group)
___resemble plants in terms of rRNA and DNA sequences, perioxome contents, mechanics of mitosis and cytokinesis and chloroplast structure
(stoneworts of genus) Chara
sister group of charophytes that have features found in plants such as plasmodesmata and a tendency to protect young sporophyte
(genus) Coleochaeta
no water transport tissues; water moves by capillary action (NONTRACHEOPHYTES)
Liverworts (Hepatophyta)

Hornworts (Anthocerophyta)
some water conducting tissue, not true tracheids (NONTRACHEOPHYTES)
Mosses (Bryophyta)
conducts products of photosynthesis from where produced to where needed or stored
conducts water and minerals from soil to aerial parts, some cell walls are stiffened with lignin; also provides support
Nontracheophytes live?
on soil or other plants, wetlands, freshwater, NO MARINE,
gametophyte flat; produce antheridia/archegonia; rhizoids on lower surface; elators (for spore dissemination); gemmae cups (asexual reproduction)
Hepatphyta (Liverworts)
cells contain a single plate-like chloroplast, sporophytes come closest to being capable of indefinite growth (basal cell division); have stomata (O2/CO2 exch.)
Anthocerophta (Hornworts)
form thick mats; contain cell type called hydroid (dies and leaves a chanel for water travel); lacks lignin; sporophytes grow by apical cell division; protonema
Bryophyta (Mosses)
principal water conducting element of the xylem
the first tracheophytes that are now extinct...
haploid and diploid generations are independent at maturity; MUST have moist environment for at least one stage in life as fertilization accomplished by motile, flagellated sperm
NONSEED Tracheophyte
simple leaves, spirally arranged, apical stem growth; Sporangi contained within conelike structures called strobili (in upper angle between leaf and stem)
Lycophyta (Club Mosses)
silicon deposits in walls make them useful for cleaning; have true roots that branch irreguarly; large independent sporophyte and small independent gametophyte
Horsetails (Ph: Pteridophyta)
rootless, spore bearing plants with only minute scales as leaves; flattened photosynthetic organs with well developed vascular tissue, gametophytes live below the surface of the ground; lack chlorophyll-depend on fungal partners for nutrition
Whisk Ferns (Ph:Pteridophyta)
have roots, stems, leaves with branching vascular strands; require water for transport of male gametes to the female gametes
True FERNS (Ph: Pteridophyta)