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49 Cards in this Set

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Sporophyte
diploid, or spore-producing, phase of an organism
Gametophyte
haploid, or gamete-producing, phase of an organism
Xylem
vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant
Phloem
vascular tissue responsible for the transportof nutrients
and the carbohydrates produced by phtosynthesis
Root
underground organ in plants that absorbs water and minerals
Leaf
photosynthetic organ that contains one or more bundles of vascular tissue
Vein
in plants, a cluster of vascular tissue in leaves; in animals, a blood vessel that returns blood to the heart
Stem
supporting structure that connects roots and leaves and carries water and nutrients between them
Rhizome
creeping or underground stem in ferns
Frond
large leaf of a fern
Gymnosperm
seed plant that bears its seeds directly on the surfaces of cones
Angiosperm
flowering plant; bears its seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seed
Cone
in gymnosperms, a seed-bearing structure, in the retina of the eye, a photoreceptor that responds to light of different colors, producing color vision
Flower
seed-bearing structure of an angiosperm
Pollen Grain
male gametophyte in seed plants
Seed
embryoof a living plant that is encased in a protective convering and surrounded by a food supply
Embryo
organism in its early stage of development
Seed Coat
structure that surrounds and protects a plant embryo and keeps it from drying out
Fruit
wall of tissue surrounding an angiosperm seed
Monocot
angiosperm whose seeds have one cotyledon
Dicot
angiosperm whose seeds have two cotyledons
Cotyledon
first leaf or first pair of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant
Root hair
tiny projection from the outer surface, or epidermis, of a root
Root Cap
tough structure that protects a root as it forces its way through the soil
Vascular Bundle
plant stem structure that contains xylem and phloem tissue
Pith
parenchyma cells inside the ring of vascular tissue in dicot stems
Primary Growth
type of plant growth that occurs at the tips of roots and shoots
Secondary Growth
pattern of plant growth in which stems increase in width
Mesophyll
specialized ground tissue that makes up the bulk of most leaves; performs most of a plant's photosynthesis
Stoma
opening in the underside of a leaf that allows carbon diaxide and oxygen to diffuse into and out of the leaf
Guard Cell
specialized cell in the epidermis of plants that controls the opening and closing of stomata by responding to changes in water pressure
Transpiration
loss of water from a plant through its leaves
Capillary Action
tendency of water to rise in a thin tube
Pollen Cone
cone in gymnosperms that produces male gametohpytes in the form of pollen grains
Seed Cone
cone that produces female gametophytes
Ovule
structure in seed cones in which female gametophytes develop
Pollen Tube
structure grown by a pollen grain; contains two haploid sperm nuclei
Sepal
outermost circle of flower parts that encloses a bud before it opens and protects the flower while it is developing
Petal
brightly colored structue just inside the sepals; attracts insects and other pollinators to a flower
Stamen
male part of the flower; made up of an anther and a filament
Filament
in algae, a long threadlike colony formed by many green
algae; in plants, a long, thin structure that supports an anther
Anther
flower structure in which haploid make gametophytes are produced
Carpel
innermost part of a flower that produces the female gametophytes
Ovary
in plants, a flower structure that contains one or more ovules from which female gametophytes are produced; in animals, the female gonad that produces eggs
Style
narrow stalk of the carpel in a flower
Stigma
sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains
frequently land
Phototropism
tendency of plants to grow toward a source of light
Gravitropism
response of a plant to the force of gravity
Photoperiodism
response of plants to periods of light and darkness