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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Plant Development
All the changes that an organisms goes through in its life cycle (cell to whole plant)
Two forms of plant development
growth (increase in size) and differentiation (specialized cells)
External factors that determine development
Light, temp, moisture, gravity, stress
Internal factors that determine development
Genetic makeup (DNA)
Tissue Culture
Growth of lants, plant organs or cell in sterile culture on an artificial liquid or solid (agar) medium
Uses of Plant Tissue Cultures
Scientific studies
Plant Breeding
What are the ways tissue cultures are used in plant breeding?
mutant screening
somatic hybridization
genetic engineering
Somatic Hybridization
Fusing non-crossable species's protoplasts by an electroshock
Clumps of undifferentiated cells in a tissue culture
Somaclonal Variation
Variation due to mutations in regenerated tissue cultures
Genetic Engineering
Piece of DNA w/ 1+ genes in introduced into a plant cell where it integrates into the plant's genome
DNA construct and how is it inserted?
Used to transform the cell/insert trait
Promoter, Favorite gene
Promoter, Resistance gene
via Agrobacterium or a particle gun
How much land current cultivate transgenic crops?
2.7% of ag land
What is the main form of transgenic crop?
Herbicide resistant, followed by Bt
How can biotechnology be used in research?
Find out what genes/enzymes are involved in a certain process
-Gain of Function: overexpression
-Loss of Function: remove gene
-introduce a new gene to see effect
How does herbicide resistance in plants work?
Inserting a version of the EPSPS enzyme that is not sensitive to glyphosate herbicide (different shape so does not bind to glyphosate)
A PR protein that, when overproduced, give funal resistance
analyze expression levels of all the genes in an organism
What are the three forms of genomics?
1. All genes of an organism are put on a chip and analyzed
2. mRNA is isolated from a treated plant and nontreated plant, both mRNAs are added to a chip and scanned by a computer
Looking for difference in gene expression @ protein level. Proteins are separated on a gel and compared
Looking for differences in gene expression in metabolites
How to analyze transport processes (3)
Split-root experiment
Grafting experiment
Reed radioactive substrate and monitor movement
Where does regulation of gene expression typically happen?
At the transcription level
How is short-term gene expression regulated?
Enzyme activation by phosphorolatation.
Signal Transduction
events that lead to gene expression
leaves in the seed (monocot and diocot)
plumele (shoot) under cotyledon
plumele (shoot) above cotyledon
What is in a seed?
Seed coat, embryo, endosperm
What is in an embryo?
Cotyledons, plumele (shoot) and radical (root)
How does a seed germinate?
Seed imbibes water which activates metabolism and breaks down food stores. Mitosis and elongation causes radical to penetrate seed coat to get nutrients, shoot emerges. Meristem division and elongation do the rest.
Epidermis of the SAM
Rest of the SAM
Secondary roots branch from the...
Regulation of cell wall rigidity via hormones and enzymes
How do cells grow (2 steps)
Wall extension: cell increases turgor pressure to expand the cell wall
Wall loosing: cell wall loses rigidity and expands w/ turgor
How do plants grow (2 steps)
1. Cell division (meristems)
2. Cell elongation
What are the 5 main hormones, and two possible hormones
Abscisic Acic
What are the functions of auxin?
Increase cell elongation
Induce root initiation and vascular differentation
Tropic responses
Apical dominance
Increase abscission of old, but no new leaves (same w/ fruit)
Promotes femaleness if flowers
What counteracts apical dominance?
ABA and cytokinins
Fruit formation w/out pollination. Results in sterile, seedless fruit
herbicide with high auxin concentrations
Functions of gibberellin
Stem elongation
Seed germination (stimulate amylase)
Promotes maleness of flowers
Functions of cytokinins
Increase cell division
Shoot and root differentiation
Delays senescence
Promotes branching
What causes witch's broom?
Bacteria induces cytokinin production, results in excessive branching
What are the functions of abscisic acid?
Stomatal closure (released during water stress)
Prevents early germination
Increases leave abscission
What are the functions of ethylene?
Stimulates ripening
Seed germination
Lowers apical dominance (?)
Increases senescence
What are the functions of polyamines?
May affect membrane permeability
What are the functions of brassinosteroids?
stimulates stem elongation in seedlings
What are two fates of hormones?
Deactivated by sugars or amino acids
Destroyed by oxidation
How does a stress result in a response? (non-lipid)
Stress triggers a hormone. Hormone binds to receptor (glycoprotein) on membrane, which activates a secondary messenger (Ca). 2nd activates kinase enzyme, which phosphorolates ezymes/transcription factors. Genes are expressed and result in a response.
What are the 3 steps in hormone responses?
1. Signal Perception
2. Signal transduction pathway
3. Response
Response w/ fat-soluble hormones
Stress activates hormone, which passes through membrane and binds to a receptor that directly influences transcription factors. NO signal transduction.
Pigment that absorbs light and becomes activated
What are the 3 photoreceptor and what kind of light do they capture?
Phytochrome (red/far-red)
Cytochrome (blue/UV-A)
UV-B receptor
Red is _____ while far red is _____.
(stable/unstable active/inactive)
Red: inactive, stable
far red: Active, stable
long stems and underveloped leaves associated with not enough light
Shade has a high/low red:far-red ratio?
Low. Induces stem elongation to find light
What are phytochromes responsible for?
Day/night length
Can influence membrane potential
May increase ATPase, which would result in kinase/gene expression
What are cytochromes responsible for?
stomatal opening
flavonoid synthesis
What are UV-B responsible for?
flavonoid synthesis
slow helical movement of plant shoots (vines)
movement as a reaction to a stimulus (light, gravity, etc.)
Nastic Response
movement that is circiadia rhythm or in response to something like touch
What are the 2 mechanisms of nastic responses?
Differential growth (permanent)
Turgor effects (reversible)
How does a plant respond to gravitropism?
Amyloplasts and statoliths fall towards gravity which puts pressure the the ER. Ca accumulates near ER and attracts auxin, which either stimulates (shoot) or inhibits (root) growth
Shoots have a ______ while roots have a ______ response to gravitropism.
Shoots: negative
Roots: positive
Temp changes that result in diurnal opening and closing of flower petal
Diurnal changes in leave position (Pr/Pfr increase turgor at pulvinus which causes the leaf to rise)
Response to touch via turgor effect
Organism's ability to measure daylength
Obligate vs Facultative flowering
Obligate: plant will not flower w/out proper conditions
Facultative: plant will eventually flower
Cold period needed for most plants to flower
synchronized endogenous rhythm to an external environmental stimulus (think TRAINed)
Why do tulips open and close?
Form of thermonasty. Cells on inside of petals warm up and grow faster, reverse happens at night.
cold period during dry stage needed for most seeds to germinate
3 Ways plants deal with stress
1. Stress escapers (not present-bulbs, tubers, etc)
2. Stress avoiders (grow longer roots, etc.)
3. Stress-tolerant
Process of acclimation due to exposure to stress. Prepares the plant for more stress later
Types of abiotic stress
Water stress, temperature stress, salt stress, chemical stress
Hydropassive vs. hydroactive stomatal closure
Hydropassive: water evaporates from guard cell, causes it to close
Hydroactive: ABA binds to guard cell, limits K+, causes higher [K] outside and diffusion
Compounds used to decrease water potential in the roots
Responses to cold stress
Make membranes less saturated (less ice crystals)
Decrease osmotic potential
Go into a rest state
prevents ice crystals form forming in the cell wall
Affects of high temp
denatures proteins
membranes become too fluid
Responses to high temp
decrease leave size (smaller, vertical, roll them up)
increase membrane saturation
Heat shock proteins
Ways plants deal with salt stress
Salt regulators (excretes salts)
Salt accumulators (keeps them to lower water potential)
binds to metals. Organic acids and peptides
Free Radical-Scavenging enzymes
Vit C
Biotic stress responses
1. Hypersensitive reaction
2. Pathogenesis-related proteins
3. Systemic acquired resistance
Hypersensitive reaction
blocks pathogen from spreading futher by changing cell walls or killing cells around infected site
things on pathogen that signal Hypersensitive reaction