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28 Cards in this Set

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Gibberellic Acid
leads to seed germination, bud germination, stem elongation and flowring/fruiting. (basically a plant steroid)
Auxin (indole acetic acid)
Apical dominance, phototropism, stem elongation and gravitropism.
Cytokinis
promote cell division and lateral bud outgrowth. inhibits leaf senescence (aging).
Brassinsteroids
steroid hormone, supports growth of xylem, supports elongation of stems and pollen tubes, slows leaf abscision (falling off).
Abscisic Acid (ABA)
inhibits growth/stem elongation. supports seed dormancy, inhibits seed germination, closure of stomata in response to water stress
Ethylene
promotes fruit ripening, pro leaf abscision, pro senescence, slows stem elong., inhibits gravitropism.
Hormones that respond to tissue damage and trigger plant defenses:
1-oligosaccharins
2-jasmonates
3-systemin
4-salicylic acid
Plants in Human nut., essentially fatty acids:
1-linoleic acid
2-linolenic acid
Photosynthesis: C_3_ plants
Calvin Cycle, use RUBISCO ENZYME to fix carbon. Carbon is fixed into 3 carbon sugars.
C4 plants
dry environ., use PEP carboxylase to fix carbon into 4C sugar.
CAM Plants
live in environ with hi light intensity and low water. stomate clsd in the day, need night-time co2
Carotenoids
-carotenes
-xanothophylls

more wvlnghts of light avlbl, prtcts chlorophyll as an anti-oxidant.
Flavonoid
Absorb UV rad. in plants.
parenchyma cells
typical plant cells, thin and flexible. lack secondary walls.
collenchyma
thicker primary walls, these lack secondary walls, no lignin, meant to suport growing prts of the plant.
sclerenchyma cells
rigid cells meant to support made of lignin. dead at functional maturity. two types:

fibers-long, slender, tapered occur in bundles.

sclerids-short, irregular (nutshells)
tracheids and vessel elements
water conducting cells in the xylem, both dead.
stele
central vascular cylinder where the xylem and the phloem are located
pith
central core of parenchyma cells within the stele
cortex
region of the root between the stele and the epidermis
endodermis
innermost layer of the cortex
endodermis
innermost layer of the cortex
pericycle
outermost layer of the stele where lateral roots emerge.
mesophyll
ground tissue of a leaf sandwiched btwn the upper and lower epidermis
vascular cambium
prodct of secondary growth, meristimatic cells surrounding the xylem and pith produces secondary xylem and secondary phloem
cork cambium
prdct of secondary grwth, produces a, tough, thick covering for roots and stems that replaces the epidermis. Occurs in all gymnos but only dicots for angios.
periderm
made up of cork, cork cambium and phelloderm
Phelloderm
parenchyma cells that develop in the cork cambium