Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/163

Click to flip

163 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the purpose of a flower?
pollination and fertilizaiton
What does angiosperm mean?
flowering plants
What are the four parts of the flower?
carpal, stamen, sepal, petal
What is triple fusion?
three nuclei united in the process of endosperm formation in double fertilizaiton of angiosperms
Which group of plants has the most species? how many species?
angiosperms; 260,000
What is a peduncle?
stalk of solitary flower or the main stalk of an inflorescence
What is a pedicel?
stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence
What is a receptacle?
enlarged end of flower stalk to which sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels attach
What is a callyx?
collective sepals
What is a corolla?
collective carpals
What is the perianth?
sepals and petals collectively
What is the androecium?
collective stamens
What is the gynoecium?
collective carpals
What is a complete flower?
has all four parts
What is an incomplete flower?
missing one of the four parts
What is a perfect flower?
has both stamens and carpals
What is an imperfect flower?
missing either stamens or carpals
What is a monoecious plant?
has both stamen flowers and capal flowers on same plant
What is a dioecious plant?
has carpal flowers on one plant and stamen flowers on another of the same species
What is hypogeny?
ovary is superior to stamens, petals and sepals
Describe bryophyte sperm.
flagellated
What is epigyny?
ovary inferior to attachment of stamen, petals and sepals
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
Dicot stem
vascular bundle; xylem; phloem; cortex; pith
What are the three bryophyte phyla?
hepatophyta
anthocerophyta
bryophyta
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
dicot stem
What are the two types of liverworts?
thallus and leafy
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
monocot stem
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
monocot root
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
monocot leaf
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
dicot leaf
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
dicot root
Slide: Name this structure
radial cross section of pine wood
Slide: Name overall structure
transgential cross section of pine wood
Slide: Name overall structure
transverse cross section of pine wood
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
pine needle; epidermis--> endodermis--> transfusion tissue--> xylem--> phloem; resin ducts
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
lily bud; pistil, stamen, sepals, petals
What are the 3 classes of bryophyta and common names?
Sphagnidae (peat mosses)
Andreaeidae (Granite Mosses)
Bryidae (True Mosses)
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
lily bud; pistil, stamen, sepals, petals
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
pine young ovulate cone; micropyle, nucellus (megasporangium), female gametophyte, archegonia
What is the calyptra?
old archegonium of moss (papery hood over capsule)
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
Fern leaf sori; indusium-->sporangia--> sorus-->leaf
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
fern prothallus (gametophyte); archegonia, antheridia, rhizomes
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
Salaginella (spike moss) strobillus; microsporophyll, microsporangium, megasporophyll, megasporangium, ligule
What are the two seedless vascular plant phyla?
Phylum Lycopodiophyta
Phylum Pteridophyta
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
Lycopodium (club moss) strobilus; sporophylls, sporangia
What are the lycopodiophyta?
club mosses, Selaginella (spike mosses), quillworts
Slide: Name overall structure and structures
Marcantia (liverwort) antheridiophore; antheridia
What are the pteridophyta?
whisk ferns, horsetails, ferns
Plant?
Main group of plants?
sporulating moss
seedless nonvascular
Plant?
Main group of plants?
Marchantia
liverworts (hepatophyta)
seedless nonvascular
Plant?
Main group of plants?
Conocephalum
liverworts
seedless nonvascular
Plant?
Main group of plants?
lycopodium lucidulum
seedless vascular
What are the gymnosperm phyla?
Phylum Cycadophyta
Phylum Ginkgophyta
Phylum Coniferophyta
Phylum Gnetophyta
What type of plant is this?
fern
What is the angiosperm phylum?
anthophyta
Plant?
Big group?
cycad
gymnosperm
Plant?
Major group?
Equisetum
pteridophytes; seedless vacular
Plant?
Major group?
Whisk fern
pteridophytes; seedless vascular
Plant?
Major group?
Selaginella (spike moss)
lycopodiophyta; seedless vascular
Plant?
Major group?
Club moss
lycopodiophyta; seedless vascular
Plant?
Major group?
isoetes (quillwort)
lycopodiophyta; seedless vascular
Plant?
Major group?
hornwort (anthocerophyta)
seedless nonvascular
Plant?
Major group?
bryophyta (mosses)
seedless nonvascular
Whose life cycle is this?
bryophyte
what is this?
label
lily bud
carpel, sepal, petal, stamen
Whose life cycle is this?
lycopodium
Whose life cycle is this?
Selaginella
label bottom to top
1 and 2--synergids
3--egg
4 and 5--polar nuclei
6,7,8--antipodal cells
What structure is this?
Label from top down
pollen grain of gymnosperm;
prothallial cell, generative cell, tube cell, wing
What is this structure
Label from top down.
germinated pollen grain of gymnosperm
sterile cell--spermatogenous cell-- pollen tube
What is this structure?
Label
pollen grain of angiosperm
microspore mother cell surrounded by a tapetum giving rise to tetrad of microspores, bottom is microsporangium
What is this structure?
Label from top down
quillwort
ligule, microsporangium, megasporangium, corm, roots
What is this structure?
label
Selaginella strobilus;
micro/megasporophylls and angium, ligules
Name the placentation from left to right
axile, parietal, free central, basal
What is this structure.
Label
corn/monocot stem
1. sclerenchyma fibers
2. phloem
3. xylem
4. lacuna
What is this structure, label
1. epidermis
2. cork
3. cork cambium
4. cortex
5. bundle cap
6. primary phloem
7. secondary phloem
8. vascular cambium
9. pith
10. secondary xylem
11. primary xylem
12. wood rays
Describe pinnate venation.
with a main midvein and secondary veins arising from it at intervals
Describe palmate venation.
with the main veins all arising from one point at the base of the leaf.
Spines are specialized what?
leaves
Thorns are specialized...?
stems
Prickles are...?
outgrowths of the epidermis that can easily be snapped off
Tendrils are specialized...?
leaves
What is a stolon?
horizontal, aboveground stem with very long internodes, adventitious roots and buds which sprout to form new shoots
What is a tuber?
underground stem enlarged for storage of food; nodes and internodes (potato)
What are the two categories of ferns?
Eusporangiate
Leptosporangiate
What is a bulb?
underground, vertical stem with fleshy
leaves which store food; mostly leaves
(onion)
What is a corm?
a short, vertical, swollen underground stem; mostly stem; nodes and internodes (taro)
Flowers are modified what?
stems
The parts of the flower are modified what?
leaves
What is the andorecium?
collective stamens
What is the pistil?
collective carpals
Difference between simple pistil, compound and gynoecium.
simple- one carpal
compund- 2 carpals
gynoecium- 1,2, or many carpals
What is an involucre?
A series of bracts beneath or around a flower or flower cluster.
indeterminate vs. determinate
in- youngest flower at end
det- oldest flower at end
spike
Unbranched inflorescence with sessile flowers (no pedicels).
raceme
Unbranched inflorescence with flowers on pedicels.
panicle
A branched or compound raceme (i.e. main rachis with branches bearing flowers on pedicels).
Name the two Eusporangiate Ferns.
Ophioglossum (adder's tongue) and Botrychium (grape ferns)
umbel
Flat-topped inflorescence with all the pedicels arising from a common point.
head
a short, dense inflorescence of sessile flowers attached to a common receptacle. sunflower
catkin
A spike-like inflorescence of unisexual, apetalous flowers, often pendent and falling as a unit. willow
spadix
A thick, fleshy spike of unisexual, apetalous flowers, often surrounded by a vase-shaped or funnel-like modified leaf or Spathe which is often brightly colored.
fruit vs. accessory fruit
fruit- ripened ovary
a.f- recepticle, calyx and style associated with fruit
What are the leptosporangium ferns?
filicales
Pericarp
The wall of the fruit, developed from the wall of the ovary.
Name the two subclasses of dry fruits
Dehiscent and Indehiscent
Which dry fruit has more than one seed and splits to let out?
dehiscent
What are the three types of heterosporous ferns?
Marsileales- Salvinia, Azolla, Marsilea
What are the three types of plant tissue?
ground tissue, vascular tissue, dermal tissue
Name the indehiscent fruit types.
achene, samara, caryopsis, nut
What are the three cell types?
parenchyma, collenchyma, schlerenchyma
Name the dehiscent fruit types
follicle, legume, capsule
Where are parenchyma cells found?
leaves, stems, fruit, storage roots
achene
Pericarp firm and close-fitting but can be fairly readily separated from the seed; fruit of sunflower
What are the least specialized plant cells?
parenchyma
caryopsis
Similar to an achene, but pericarp firmly united to seed and often indistinguishable from it. corn
What is the purpose of parenchyma cells?
storage, photosynthesis
nut
Like an achene, but usually much larger, with a very large seed and a thick, hard bony wall
What is the purpose of collenchyma cells?
support in growing plant
What is the outer cover of the nut derived from?
involucre of bracts and perianth tissue
What is the purpose of schlerenchyma cells?
support
samara
Achene-like (occasionally several-seeded) but with protion of ovary wall (pericarp) developed into a long, thin flat wing; maple and elm
What are the different kinds of schlerenchyma cells?
schlerids and fibers
schizocarp
fruits in which each carpel of a compound ovary splits apart to form two or more parts, each with a single seed
What are special features of xylem?
tracheids and vessel members
mericarp
a carpel with one seed; one of a pair split apart at maturity
What are special features of phloem?
sieve tubes and sieve tube members
Follicle
Derived from a single carpel; splits open (dehisces) at maturity along only one line, the suture
What are schlerenchyma fibers?
Long, tapered cells that often occur in groups or clumps (abundant in the wood and bark of flowering plants)
legume
Similar to follicle but dehiscent along two lines (both margins). Restricted to family Fabaceae
What is the function of schlenchyma fibers?
support
capsule
all the many-seeded dry fruits derived from more than a single carpel (i.e. from a compound pistil)
What are schlenchyma fibers found?
leaves and stems
What are the three groups of fleshy fruits
1. Fruits developed from a simple pistil (1 carpel)
2. Fruits from a compound pistil
3. Fruits developed from many pistils produced by either one flower or many flowers
What are schlerids?
Short, cuboidal cells common in shells of nuts and pits of fruits (peaches, cherries)
Name the subgroups of group 2 fleshy fruits
berries, pepos, hesperidium, and pome;
Describe berries
leathery exocarp and fleshy endo and mesocarp
Describe pepos
Inferior ovary matures a fleshy inner layer surrounded by a hard leathery rind developed from floral cup tissue; melons, gourds
Describe hesperidium
have a thick leathery rind full of oil glands; flehsy portion is of juice sacs borne on the walls of the several carpels (placentation axile); citrus
Describe pome
- from an inferior ovary, the principal edible tissue derived laugely from the floral cup (hypanthium). The true ovary wall is enclosed and may be of firmer texture; seeds are not embedded in pulp. apples
What are the two subgroups of group 3 fleshy fruits?
aggregate and multiple
Describe aggregate fruit
Fruit derived from the many pistils of a single flower. Individual pistils become achenes, small drupes (drupelets) or other fruit types; raspberry
Describe Multiple fruit
Fruit derived from the pistils (and associated structures) of many separate, closely clustered flowers, i.e. is derived from an inflorescence, and hence includes floral axis, sepals, bracts, and pedicel tissue as well as the ovary proper of the flowers. mulberry
What kind of plant typically has tracheids?
gymnosperms
What kind of plant typically has vessel members?
angiosperms
What meristems do the apical meristem give rise to?
protoderm, ground meristem, procambium
What does the protoderm form?
epidermis
What does the ground meristem form?
ground tissue
What does the procambium form?
primary xylem and phloem
What is a seed?
ripened ovule
What is the purpose of a fruit?
to disperse seeds
What are the two different kinds of germinations? name examples?
epigeous (bean) and hypogeous (corn, pea)
Compare and contrast purpose of roots and stems
Roots- anchorage, absorption
Stems-photosynthesis, support
Both- storage, conduction
Compare and contrast structure of roots and stems
Roots- root hairs, root cap, lateral roots, tissue arrangement
Stems- nodes and internodes, ability to produce leaves, tissue arrangement
Where are root hairs formed?
region of maturation
What is the main function of leaves?
photosynthesis
Contrast xerophytic and hydrophytic leaf structures.
xerophytic- thick cuticle, sunken stomates on bottom, dense palisade
hydrophytic- stomate on top, lots of spongy mesophyll
Contrast sun and shade leaves.
sun- thick leaf, cuticle; small leaves
shade- thin leaf, cuticle, large leaves
What are the nonvascular seedless reproductive structures?
antheridium and archegonium
What are the vascular seedless reproductive structures (lycophytes)?
strobili
What are the vascular seedless reproductive structures (pteridophytes)?
horsetail-sporangiophore in strobili
whisk fern- synangium
fern- sori
Which gymnosperms have motile sperm? immotile?
cycads, ginkgos; conifers, gnetophytes
Which plant has a capsule covered by a calyptra?
bryophyta