Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/41

Click to flip

41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What disease can be avoided by using transplants?
damping off
What effects do weeds cause?
allelopathy, moisture and fertilizer losses, occupy space, create stagnant air pockets, sources of viruses, vectors, soil-borne pathogens and predators
What are the effects of over-irrigation?
wastes water, leach fertilizer, promote disease outbreaks
What principles would you use for irrigation?
1) Don't want to extend wet period with irrigation
2) Don't irrigate late in afternoon or early in morning
3) On turf, early irrigation is good to bead dew off in morning
4) irrigation is used to cool soil
What are the major rules with respect to directly working with or touching crops?
1) Avoid wet- likely to be brittle, injured and helps move pathogens
2) Avoid cold- tend to be brittle
3) Avoid windy- spray drift
4) Avoid rough handling
What should be done at harvest to prevent disease?
1) minimize wounds
2) move promptly
3) avoid high temperatures
4) avoid low temperatures
5) avoid rainfall
What management techniques can be used for the market?
- know the shelf-life of your product
- don't try to sell to markets beyond the reach of your product
- do use a transportation system that you can trust
- do use load temperature sensors
Give a disease that dodine can control.
Apple or pear scab
What is the mode-of-action for dodine and glyodin?
effect the cell membranes, evidence is electrolyte leakage
What is the definition of resistance?
an inherited characteristic in a plant that has the ability to overcome, partially or completely, the effect of a pathogen or damaging agent
Give one accomplishment of one person in the history of resistance.
Theophrastus observed that not all kinds and varieties of plants developed the same amount of disease
What is a hypersensitive response?
gene product in host binds with protein produced by pathogen which initiates a series of reactions including the rupture of the tonoplast, synthesis of phytoalexins and rupture of plasmalemma.
What are characteristics of vertical resistance?
- Monogenic
- Env doesn't affect
- Pathogen doesn't affect
- durability can be limited
- differential
- large effect
- development of resistant cultivars is relatively easy
What is a hypersensitive response?
gene product in host binds with protein produced by pathogen which initiates a series of reactions including the rupture of the tonoplast, synthesis of phytoalexins and rupture of plasmalemma.
What are sources of vertical resistance genes in traditional plant breeding?
- survivor selection
- selections from different geographic regions
- wild plants of same species
- related plants
What is a hypersensitive response?
gene product in host binds with protein produced by pathogen which initiates a series of reactions including the rupture of the tonoplast, synthesis of phytoalexins and rupture of plasmalemma.
What are characteristics of vertical resistance?
- Monogenic
- Env doesn't affect
- Pathogen doesn't affect
- durability can be limited
- differential
- large effect
- development of resistant cultivars is relatively easy
What are some effects of horizontal resistance?
- spores are not as efficient
- not as many potential infection courts in host
- lesions do not expand as rapidly
- fewer spores produced per lesion
What are sources of vertical resistance genes in traditional plant breeding?
- survivor selection
- selections from different geographic regions
- wild plants of same species
- related plants
What are characteristics of horizontal resistance?
- Polygenic
- env can affect (nema, heat, lack of O2, clouds)
- resistance masked when env, path pop or host pop are highly favorable
- non-differential
- durable
- small effect
What are some effects of horizontal resistance?
- spores are not as efficient
- not as many potential infection courts in host
- lesions do not expand as rapidly
- fewer spores produced per lesion
What are characteristics of vertical resistance?
- Monogenic
- Env doesn't affect
- Pathogen doesn't affect
- durability can be limited
- differential
- large effect
- development of resistant cultivars is relatively easy
What structural factors and preformed chemicals make up horizontal resistance?
- Structure- tomato stem scars have small pores and water carrying pathogens can't enter
- preformed chemicals- onion skin color
- cell wall structure- silicates
- synthesis of toxic chemicals- phytoalexins
- trigger wound healing response- oxidize phenols to quinones, callose, tyloses, suberin, cork, abscission
What are characteristics of horizontal resistance?
- Polygenic
- env can affect (nema, heat, lack of O2, clouds)
- resistance masked when env, path pop or host pop are highly favorable
- non-differential
- durable
- small effect
What are sources of vertical resistance genes in traditional plant breeding?
- survivor selection
- selections from different geographic regions
- wild plants of same species
- related plants
What are some effects of horizontal resistance?
- spores are not as efficient
- not as many potential infection courts in host
- lesions do not expand as rapidly
- fewer spores produced per lesion
What structural factors and preformed chemicals make up horizontal resistance?
- Structure- tomato stem scars have small pores and water carrying pathogens can't enter
- preformed chemicals- onion skin color
- cell wall structure- silicates
- synthesis of toxic chemicals- phytoalexins
- trigger wound healing response- oxidize phenols to quinones, callose, tyloses, suberin, cork, abscission
What are characteristics of horizontal resistance?
- Polygenic
- env can affect (nema, heat, lack of O2, clouds)
- resistance masked when env, path pop or host pop are highly favorable
- non-differential
- durable
- small effect
What is a hypersensitive response?
gene product in host binds with protein produced by pathogen which initiates a series of reactions including the rupture of the tonoplast, synthesis of phytoalexins and rupture of plasmalemma.
What structural factors and preformed chemicals make up horizontal resistance?
- Structure- tomato stem scars have small pores and water carrying pathogens can't enter
- preformed chemicals- onion skin color
- cell wall structure- silicates
- synthesis of toxic chemicals- phytoalexins
- trigger wound healing response- oxidize phenols to quinones, callose, tyloses, suberin, cork, abscission
What are characteristics of vertical resistance?
- Monogenic
- Env doesn't affect
- Pathogen doesn't affect
- durability can be limited
- differential
- large effect
- development of resistant cultivars is relatively easy
What is a hypersensitive response?
gene product in host binds with protein produced by pathogen which initiates a series of reactions including the rupture of the tonoplast, synthesis of phytoalexins and rupture of plasmalemma.
What are sources of vertical resistance genes in traditional plant breeding?
- survivor selection
- selections from different geographic regions
- wild plants of same species
- related plants
What are characteristics of vertical resistance?
- Monogenic
- Env doesn't affect
- Pathogen doesn't affect
- durability can be limited
- differential
- large effect
- development of resistant cultivars is relatively easy
What are some effects of horizontal resistance?
- spores are not as efficient
- not as many potential infection courts in host
- lesions do not expand as rapidly
- fewer spores produced per lesion
What are sources of vertical resistance genes in traditional plant breeding?
- survivor selection
- selections from different geographic regions
- wild plants of same species
- related plants
What are characteristics of horizontal resistance?
- Polygenic
- env can affect (nema, heat, lack of O2, clouds)
- resistance masked when env, path pop or host pop are highly favorable
- non-differential
- durable
- small effect
What are some effects of horizontal resistance?
- spores are not as efficient
- not as many potential infection courts in host
- lesions do not expand as rapidly
- fewer spores produced per lesion
What structural factors and preformed chemicals make up horizontal resistance?
- Structure- tomato stem scars have small pores and water carrying pathogens can't enter
- preformed chemicals- onion skin color
- cell wall structure- silicates
- synthesis of toxic chemicals- phytoalexins
- trigger wound healing response- oxidize phenols to quinones, callose, tyloses, suberin, cork, abscission
What are characteristics of horizontal resistance?
- Polygenic
- env can affect (nema, heat, lack of O2, clouds)
- resistance masked when env, path pop or host pop are highly favorable
- non-differential
- durable
- small effect
What structural factors and preformed chemicals make up horizontal resistance?
- Structure- tomato stem scars have small pores and water carrying pathogens can't enter
- preformed chemicals- onion skin color
- cell wall structure- silicates
- synthesis of toxic chemicals- phytoalexins
- trigger wound healing response- oxidize phenols to quinones, callose, tyloses, suberin, cork, abscission