Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/38

Click to flip

38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bryophytes
a. Paraphyletic
b. Gametophyte generation is dominant in life cycle
c. Matrotrophic
liverworts
oil bodies and elaters
mosses
a. Well differentiated leaves on gametophytes
b. Multicellular rhizoids
hornworts
Intercalary meristem in sporophytes
Dominant in vascular plants?
sporophyte
Dominant in bryophytes?
gametophyte
synapomorphies of vascular plants
i. Xylem and phloem (vasculature)
ii. Lignin
iii. Dominant sporophyte generation
iv. Seed syndrome
microphyll
no leaf gap, single vein in leaf
megaphyll
has leaf gap, branched veins in leaf
Characteristics of pteridophytes
i. Paraphyletic
ii. Dominant sporophyte generation
iii. Female spores are dispersed from sporophyte
homospory
male and female spores are of the same size
heterospory
male and female spores are of different size; microspores-male
megospores-female
microsporophyll
male reproductive leaves
megasporophyll
female reproductive leaves
progymnosperms
a. Not seed plants, pteridophytes
b. Conifer type wood, free sporing production
gymnosperms
a. Paraphyletic
b. Sporphyte generation dominant in life cycle
c. Seeds are not enclosed in an ovary
Angiosperm Synapomorphies
a. Closed carpel
b. Megagametophyte with 8 nuclei
c. Double fertilization, forms endosperm (3n)
d. Stamens with two pairs of pollen sacs (microsporangia)
monocot synapomorphies
a. Single cotyledon
b. Parallel leaf venation
c. Fibrous root
d. Unicolpate pollen
e. Flower parts in multiples of three
f. Stem vascular bundles scattered
g. Secondary growth absent
eudicot synapomorphy
a. Two cotelydons
b. Netlike veins
c. Taproot
d. Tricolpate pollen
e. Flower parts in multiples of four or five
f. Vascular bundles in a ring
g. Secondary growth often present
Three tissue systems
1. protoderm->epidermis (Dermal)
2. ground meristem->ground tissues (parenchyma) (Ground)
3. procambium->primary xylem and primary phloem (vascular)
rhizosphere
layer of soil bound to root by mucigel (establishes contact between roots and soil; provides favorable environment for microbes)
auxin
1. IAA
2. leaf primordia, young leaves, and seeds
3. polar transport
4. Causes apical dominance
cytokinins
i. root tips
ii. Regulates cell division, shoot and root formation, delays leaf senescence
iii. Derived from primary metabolites
ethylene
Cell expansion, fruit ripening, sex determination
abscisic acid (ABA)
1.mature leaves
2. response to water stress
3. controls stomatal closure
4. prevents seed germination
gibberellins
1. young shoots and developing seeds
2. stem growth
3. breaks seed dormancy
brassinolids
i. Steroids
ii. Stimulates cell division and elongation
salicylic acid
Activates plant defense genes against pathogens
jasmonates
Regulates synthesis of storage proteins and defense proteins
polyamines
plant defense
thigmotropism
response to physical contact
phloem
food aka sugars
xylem
water and minerals
Fertile Crescent
wheat, peas, grapes
eastern Asia
rice, soybean, tea
Africa
sorghum, coffee
central America
corn, beans, cacao
South America
potatoes