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95 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Element
fundamental unit of matter
Atom
smallest particle into which a substance can be divided and still retain chemical properties
Nucleus
control center of cell
electron
negative control that orbits around an atom; can create bonds
Covalent Bond
atoms share electrons to create bond
Ionic Bond
attracted by opposite electrical charges
H-Bond
weakest
Cohesion
through H-bonding, water molecules hold onto each other
Adhesion
through H-bonding, water molecules hold onto other surfaces; how water gets up trees
Nucleic Acids
info storage devices in cells; made of nucleotides
Nucleotides
A, T, G, C, & U - code for amino acids
DNA
double stranded, deoxyribose sugar, bases = A, G, C, T
RNA
single stranded, ribose sugar, bases = A, G, C, U
Hydrophobic
a compound that has no polarity and is mostly made up of C-H or C-C bonds, so like oil, it does not dissolve or mix
Hydrophilic
a compound that has polar properties and dissolves in water
Organic
molecules where carbon is the main building block
Polymer
molecule built up of long chains of similar subunits
Carbohydrate
make up structural frame work of cells; energy storage
Starch
glucose polysaccharide that stores energy in plants
Lipids
biological molecules not soluble in water
Fats
long term energy storage
Amino Acids
determine the shape of proteins
Proteins
polymers made up of amino acids; play important structural roles; many are enzymes
Enzymes
catalyze reactions
Heredity
traits passed from parents to offspring
Gene-trait
factors that act later in offspring to produce traits
DNA-RNA-PROTEIN
order it takes to synthesize and create new proteins
Genetic code
"language" of genes; 20 amino acids
Codon
basic unit of genetic code; 3 nucleotides that code for polypeptide termination
transcription
1st stage of gene expression; an mRNA is synthesized from a gene within the DNA
translation
2nd stage of gene expression; mRNA is used to direct the production of a protein
Ribosome
site of protein synthesis
Promotor
contains sequences that are bound by proteins that turn expression on or off
cell
a unit of cytoplasm that is delimited by the cell membrane
Prokaryote
organisms belonging to the domains Bacteria and Archae that lack a membrane-bound nucleus; multi-cellular organism
Eukaryote
organism whose cells have their DNA contained within a membrane-bound nucleus; multi-cellular organism
Plasma membrane
outer membrane composed of phospholipid molecules arranged in a bilayer that surround all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
Semi permeable
only a few certain molecules get through
Cytoplasm
the watery living material of the cell inside the cell membrane and outside the nucleus
ribosome
small particles composed of RNA and protein, which are the sites of protein syntheses in cells
nucleus
control center of cell; major site of genetic code (DNA) - storage in eukaryotic cells
Chromatin
darkly stained colored material composed of DNA and proteins in eukaryotic chromosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum
network of flattened membrane sacs or tubes and vesicles that arise from them. Smooth ER makes fatty acids and phospholipids; Rough ER makes proteins
Golgi body
stacked array of membrane sacs that make up the golgi apparatus
secretion
on organism releasing something (hormone)
mitochondrion
organelles present in eukaryotic cells that are the location for the generation of energy in the form of ATP by the process of respiration
cell wall
rigid portion of the extra cellular matrix of plants, fungi, bacteria and many protests
amyloplast
non-green starch-rich plasids with few thylanoids that occur in roots and other starch storage tissue
chloroplast
organelle or plasid that contains cholorophyll in plants and algae and is the site of photosynthesis
vacuole
membrane-bound, water-filled sac; water, ion, and pigment storage; supports cell by turgor pressure, cell enlargement
shoot
above ground organ system of a plant, usually upright, but sometimes growing horizontally above the ground
stem
the shoot of vascular plants; contains vascular tissue and typically produces leaves and reproductive organs
leaves
the dorsiventral (flattened with distinct upper and lower surfaces) organs of vascular plants that are specialized for photosynthesis
roots
mineral and water absorption organs of plants
nodes
point on a stem where one or more branches, leaves, or buds are attached
internodes
space along a stem between nodes = location of leave and bud emergence
axillary buds
buds that occur in the axil fo the leaf Axil = upper angle between a stem and a branch or the petiole fo an attached leaf
mitosis aka cell division
process of duplicating a cell where a singe cell divides into two
chromosomes
genome broken up as chunks of DNA
cell cycle
interphase & mphase, G1, s phase, G2
proliferate
all daughter cells are the same
formative
fate of each daughter cell is different (they don't become the same cell type)
differentiation
along with cell division and cell enlargement, it accounts for the generation of tissues and organs
SAM
shoot apical meristem - contribute to plant growth and development
RAM
root apical meristem - contribute to plant growth and development
secondary growth
ocurs in woody plants
vascular cambium
secondary meristem
(cork) cambium
forms bark (acts as replacement for epidermis)
asexual reproduction
reproduction without sex
sexual reproduction
reproduction with sex, involves fusion of two cells
meiosis
production of gametes, involves two divisions of the nucleus, produces 4 genetically variable haploid nuclei because of recombination and segregation, occurs in sex cells
recombination
combinations of genes on the same chromosome can be "re-mixed" by recommendation, allowing significant genetic variation in offspring
random segregation
cause haploids to be genetically different
haploid
half set of DNA
diploid
full set of DNA
alternation of generation
unique feature of plants, after meiosis, get multicellular, haploid gametophyte that contains egg and sperm. In primitive plants, it si a free living organism. In flowering plants, it is only a few cells and it lives within the sporophye (2N plant).
gametophyte
produce eggs and sperm
sepal
protects developing flower bed, photosynthetic - often green leaf-like
petal
often highly colored and showy, attract pollinators to flowers, number and shape depends on plant family - some highly modified
stamen
male part of flower, made up of anther and filament, pollen-bearing leaves
anther
pollen produced here
pistil
female part of flower
stigma
pollen reception surface
style
column through which pollen grows
ovary
contains ovules inside a cavity; develops into the fruit
perfect vs. imperfect flower
perfect has both sexes present while imperfect has one sex per flower
pollen & pollen tube
male gamete produced inside the anther; where pollen grows in the ovary
ovary and female gametophyte
where ovum is produced and fertilized; ovum
double fertilization
first sperm fertilizes egg (forms zygote), second sperm fertilizes (fuses with) the polar nuclei. Forms a triploid (3N)nucleus = Endosperm Cell
zygote
cell divides my mitosis into an embryo (sporophyte)
embryo
zygote that forms within the seed; contains meristems and one or two embryonic leaves called cotyleons
endosperm
cell also divides to form endosperm tissue (3N=triploid). Food for germinating seedling, only flowering plant seeds have endosperm
dicot and monocot
dicot contains two otyledons and monocot has one
dormant
at maturity, seeds dry up and the tissues become dormant; metabolize at very low rates
malted barley
seeds soaked in water that are allowed to germinate for a short time, hydrolytic enzymes breakdown proteins and starch into sugars used be the embryo to grow. The seeds are roasted killing the embryo and then used to make beer.