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82 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the most common STD in the US?
HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)
HPV can cause ___ & ___
genital warts & cervical cancer
Is there a cure for HPV?
No, there is a vaccination that protects against most strains --- Gardasil
What is the 2nd most common STD in the US?
Trichomoniasis -- Trichomoniasis vaginalis
What is Trichomoniasis caused by?
A protozoan; transmitted by sharing towels or damp toilet seats as well as sexual intercourse
What is Trichomoniasis treated with?
Antiprotozoans, drug metronidozole
Herpes Simplex Virus can cause ___ & ___
cold sores & genital herpes
Herpes can be transmitted through __, __, & __
oral, anal, or vaginal sex
What percentage of adults are infected with HSV?
20 - 25% (1 in 4/5)
Can pregnant women pass the infection on to a child during delivery?
Yes.
Where does herpes "hide"?
In the nervous system where it can't be touched; causes lesions periodically
Is there a cure for herpes?
No, however L-lysine can be used to treat the symptoms.
What is the most common bacterial transmitted disease?
Chlamydiosis (etiologic agent --- Chlamydia trachomatis)
Chlamydiosis can cause ___ & ___
infections in newborns & sterility in women
How is Chlamydiosis treated?
With antibiotics.
What is Gonhorrhea caused by?
Neisseria gonorrhea.
What can Gonhorrhea cause?
inflammatory disease and sterility
How is Gonhorrhea treated?
Treated with antibiotics, however drug resistant strains are becoming more common.
How is Hepatitis B transmitted?
Through blood or sex.
HBV (caused by Hep B) can lead to ___ cancer.
Liver
How is HBV treated?
With interferon; there is a vaccine available.
What is Syphilis caused by?
Treponema pallidum.
What are the 3 stages of Syphilis?
Primary, Secondary, & Tertiary.
How is Syphilis treated?
With antibiotics.
What was the Tuskagee Syphilis Experiment?
Experiment conducted by our federal government on its own citizens.
What is AIDS?
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
HIV infects what kind of cells?
T cells -- destroy the immune system
How is HIV transmitted?
Blood, semen, and vaginal fluid.
Is there a cure for HIV?
No, but antiviral drugs can treat symptoms.
Infection with any STD can increase your risk of getting ____ by creating lesions where the virus can enter.
HIV
Virulence Factor
anything that helps microorganism cause disease
Examples of bacterial virulence factors:
capsules, fimriae, toxins, plasmids, flagella, pili
Capsules
attachment and avoid phagocytosis
Fimbriae
attachment
Toxins
kill or damage cells
Plasmids
carry genes that code for antibiotic resistance or toxins
Flagella
can be a virulence factor under some circumstances
Pili
aid in transferring plasmids from one cell to another
Immune System protects us from infection by ___
microorganisms
Two main parts of the Immune System are ___ & ___
Innate & Adaptive
Innate Immunity
nonspecific, same reaction no matter what pathogen (includes: skin, stomach acid, inflammation, fever, & phagocytosis)
Four signs of Inflammation
heat, pain, redness, swelling (phagocytes leak from blood stream and enter tissues)
Phagocytosis
process of engulfing and destroying foreign pathogens
Adaptive Immunity
involves memory, immune system remembners exposure to previous pathogens and responds specifically to that pathogen (T & B cells)
T cells...
control cell mediated immunity -- kill viral infected and cancer cells
B cells...
produce antibodies and kill mainly extracellular pathogens
Antigen
any substance that evokes an immune response
Antibody
protein produced by immune system that binds to and helps destroy antigen
Secondary response
second time a person is exposed to pathogen the adaptive immunity remembers the pathogen and destroys it before it can cause disease
What exploits the memory of adaptive immunity?
Vaccines; a dead or weakened microorganism is injected and stimulates immune system
Antibiotics __ or __
kill or inhibit growth of bacteria (no effect on other microorganisms)
Antibiotics are produced by __
microorganisms
Two categories of bacteria are?
gram positive & gram negative
Broad Spectrum Antibiotics
cells that target both gram pos & gram neg
Narrow Spectrum Antibiotics
cells that target either gram pos or gram neg
Penicillins all have a core structure that includes a ___
B-lactum ring (enzymes that cleave this ring are called Penicillinases or B-lactamases; enzymes that produce Penicillinases are resistant to penicillin)
Penicillins inhibit ___
cell wall synthesis
Natural penicillins come from mold & have 2 disadvantages to semi-synthetic penicillins, what are these?
1. sensitive to penicillinases

2. have a narrow spectrum of activity
What is Methicillin?
Antibiotic designed to resist action of penicillinases; wide-spread Methicillin lead to resistant strain (MRSA - methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus; now discontinued in US
Wide-spread use of ____ to treat MRSA lead to VRE?
Vancomycin (vancomycin resistant enterococci)
Drug resistance is often carried on ___
plasmids (DNA that can be transferred among bacteria)
Ways to reduce antibiotic resistance...
1. take full prescription
2. don't take antibiotics for common cold
Epidemic
disease whose incidence is increasing above expected levels in a population
Pandemic
an epidemic that has spread over several continents
Endemic
a disease whose incidence is incrasing above expected levels in a population
Bubonic Plague (Black Death) caused __ world wide pandemics
Four (killed 1/4 of Europe between 1396 & 61)
Bubonic Plague is caused by?
Yersinia pestis, carried by rodents and transmitted by fleas
Virulence factors of Bubonic Plague include...
plasmids & toxins
Symptoms of Bubonic Plague include ___, ___, & ___
fever, swollen lymph nodes, black splotches under skin
What is the treatment for Bubonic Plague?
Antibiotics
What form of Bubonic Plague is transmitted by respiratory droplets?
Pneumonic form
Leprosy (Hansens disease) is caused by?
Etiologic agent -- mycobacterium leprae (acid-fast organisms)
What are the symptoms of Leprosy?
sores, nerve damage, blindness, loss of digits
How is Leprosy transmitted?
nasal secretions
How is Leprosy diagnosed & treated?
acid-fast strain; multiple antibiotics over long period of time
Leprosy is ___ in the US.
rare; though it can be carried by armadillos
What percentage of people are immune to leprosy?
95%; people who are not immune get infected and the bacteria grows inside of phagocytes spreading it throughout the whole bloodstream
Cholera is caused by?
vibrio cholerae
Symptoms of Cholera include...
rice water stools
How is Cholera transmitted
contaminated water and food; virulence factors include flagella, pili, and toxin
Treatment for Cholera
Replace fluids and electrolytes; antibiotics are helpful
Prevention of Cholera
good sanitation