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22 Cards in this Set

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History
Three major pandemics of plague
Sixth century A.D. – Middle East and Mediterranean
Eighth-fourteenth centuries
1855 to present – China and beyond
__ century A.D.
__-___ centuries
1855 to ______
Epidemiology
Males > females? old > young?
no age or sex preference
Epidemiology
Worldwide?
in US?
1600 cases per year worldwide during last 40 years
10-15 cases per year in US during last few decades
Epidemiology
has killed?
has killed 200m
Etiology
Causative agent
Yersinia pestis
Y____nia p_____
Etiology
Three forms:
Bubonic
Pneumonic
Septicemic
Etiology
Bubonic
large dark buboes develop on skin where underlying necrotic lymph
tissue exists
nasty looking
Etiology
Pneumonic
respiratory form, fever, chills, cough, chest pain, may have buboes
___________ form, fever, chills, ______, chest ____, may have _______
Etiology
Septicemic
bacteria in blood, nausea, emesis, diarrhea, rapid decline of patient
bacteria in ______,_______, emesis, diarrhea, rapid _______ of patient
Transmission
Bubonic
by bite of flea usually (75-97% of cases)
vector
Transmission
Pneumonic
inhalation of respiratory droplets carrying bacteria 14%
vector
Transmission
Septicemic
destiny of other forms; any means of infecting blood <20%
Vector
Pathogenesis
Bubonic
step 1
vector = flea bite
Pathogenesis
Bubonic
step 2
vesicle develops at site of bite, grows
_______ develops at site of bite, grows
Pathogenesis
Bubonic
Step 3
bacteria infect lymph nodes in area of bite, forming buboes
form buboes by infecting _____ _______
Pathogenesis
Bubonic
step 4
Buboes may rupture; bacteria infect blood
buboes _______
Pathogenesis
Pneumonic infection of Yersinia Pestis (step 1)
respiratory
Pathogenesis
Pneumonic
Step 2
First signs/symptoms
Pathogenesis
Pneumonic
step 3
Within 2-4 days, respiratory failure, death
pathogenesis
Septicemic:
blood infection by yersinia pestis
Can progress to brain and other organs; fatal without quick antibiotic treatment
can progress to...
Treatment/Prophylaxis
Vaccine is available for military or aid workers; quarantine used worldwide for plague
Treatment/Prophylaxis
Rx: Streptomycin or gentamycin; more effective if given early
strept__ycin or gent__ycin