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112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transit information
neurons
cell body; it contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells
soma
the parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information
dendrites
a long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or to glands
axon
insulating material, derived from glial cells, that encases some axons
myelin sheath
small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
terminal buttons
a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another
synapse
the stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive
resting potential
a very brief shift in a neuron's electrical charge that travels along an axon
action potential
minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot accur
absolute refractory
a microscopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron
synaptic cleft
chemicals that transmit information frrom one neuron to another
neurotransmitters
a voltage change at a receptor site on a postsypnaptic cell membrane
postsynaptic potential
a positive voltage shift that increases the likelyhood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials.
excitatory PSP
a negative voltage shift that decreases the likehood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potential
inhibitory PSP
process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane
reuptake
the stimulation of sense organs
sensation
the selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory output
perception
the study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience
psychophysics
a dividing point between energy levels that do and do not have a detectable effect
threshold
the minimum amount of stimulation that an organism can detect percent of the time
absolute threshold
all the irrelevant stimuli in the environment and the neural activity they elicit
noise
a gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation
sensory adatation
transparent eye structure that focuses the light rays falling on the retina
lens
close objects are seen clearly but distant objects appear blurry
nearsightedness
distant objects are seen clearly but close objects appear blurry
farsightedness
the opening in the center of the iris that helps regulate the amount of light passing into the rear chamber of the eye
pupil
the neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye; it absorbs light, reprocesses images, and sneds visual information to the brain
retina
a hole in the retina where the optic nerve fibers exit the eye
optic disk
secialized visual receptors that play a key role in daylight vision and color vision
cones
a tiny spot in the center of the retina that contains only cones; visual acuity is greatest at this spot
fovea
specialized visual receptors that play a key role in night vision and peripheral vision
rods
the point at which the optic nerves from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain
optic chiasm
involves simultaneous extracting different kinds of information from the same input
parallel processing
a fluid-filled, coiled tunnel that contains the receptors for hearing
cochlea
it runs the length of the spiraled cochlea, hold the auditory receptors
basilar membrane
it is made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and the spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
bundles of neuron fibers that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system
nerves
made up of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors
somatic nervous sytem
axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery o fthe body
afferent nerve fibers
axons that carry information outward from the central nervous system to the periphery of the body
efferent nerve fibers
made up of nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles and glands
autonomic nervous system
the branch of the autonomic nervous sytem that mobilizaes the body's resources for emergencies
sympathetic division
the branch of the autonomic nervous system that generally conserves bodily resources
parasympathetic division
system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord
central nervous sytem
nourished the brain and provides a cushion for it
cerebrospinal fluid
a semipermeable membrane-like mechanism that stops some chemicals from passing between the bloodstream and the brain
blood-brain barrier
includes the cerebellum and the two structures found in the lower part of the brainstem: the medulla and the pons
hindbrain
segment of the brainstem that lies between the hindbrain and the forebrain
midbrain
the largest and most complex region of the brainm encompassing a variety of structures, including the thalamus, hypothalumus, limbic system, and cerebrum
forebrain
a structure in the forebrain through which all sensory information (except smell) must pass to get to the cerebral cortex
thalamus
a structure found near the base of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs
hypothalumus
a loosely connected network of structures located roughly along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortial areas
limbic system
the largest and most complex area of thehuman brain
cerebrum
convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum
cerebral cortex
right and left halves of the cerebrum
cerebral hemispheres
structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
corpus callosum
consists of glands that secrete chemicals into the bloostream that help control bodily functioning
endocrine system
releases a great variety of hormones that fan out around the body, stimulating actions in the other endocrine glands
pituitary gland
a drawing that is compatible with two interpretations that can shift back and forth
reversible figure
a readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way
perceptual set
process of detecting specific elements in visual input and assembling them into a more complex form
feature analysis
involves interpretation of visual cues that indicate how near or far away objects are
depth perception
clues about distance based on differing views of the two eyes
binocular depth
refers to the fact that objects within 25 ft. project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retine, so the right and left eyes see slightly different views of the object
retinal disparity
clues about distance based on the image in either eye alnoe
monocular depth
clues about distance based in either eye alone
monocular depth
involves images of objects at different distances moving across the retina at different rates
motion parallax
clues about distance that can be given in a flat picture
pictorial depth cues
involves an apparently inexplicable discrepancy between the appearance of a visual stimulus and its physical reality
optical illusion
objects that can be represented in two dimensional pictures but cannot exist in three-dimentional space
impossible figures
device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surfca eof the scalp
EEG
periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning
biological rhythms
consists of sleep stages 3 and 4 during which high-amplitude, low-frequency data waves become prominent in EEG recordings
slowwave sleep
relatively deep stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, high-frequency, low-amplitude brain waves, and vivid dreaming
REM sleep
sleep stages 1-4 which are marked by an absence of rapid eye movements, relatively little dreaming, and varied EEG activity
Non-REM
sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of real, external stimuli
hallucinations
failures to mention important information or to carry out important tasks, and often occur when a person omits an important step in a sequence of behaviors
memory lapses
sudden and unpredictable changes from one mood to another
mood swings
difficulty paying attention to details, easily distracted, and prone to making careless mistakes
attention deficit
chemical substances that modify mental, emotional, or behavioral functioning
psychoactive drugs
drugs derived from opium that are capable of relieving pain
narcotic or opiates
sleep-inducing drugs that tend to decrease central nervous system activation and behavioral activity
sedatives
drugs that tend to increase central nervous system activation and behavioral activity
stimulants
a diverse group of drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning, marked most prominently by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience
hallucinogens
hemp plant from which marijuana, hashish, and THC are derived.
cannabis
exists when a person must continue to take a drug to avpid withdrawal illness
physical dependence
exists when a person must continue to take a drug to satisfy intense mental and emotional craving for the drug
psychological dependence
holds that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors
biopshychosocial model
psychology concerned with how pshychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness.
health psychology
any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one's well-being and that thereby tax one's coping abilities
stress
occurs in any situation when the persuit if some goal is thwarted
frustration
occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression
conflict
conflict in which a choice must be made betweem two attracteive goals
approach-approach conflict
a choice must be made between two attractive goals
avoidance-avoidance
a choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects
approach-avoidance
involves expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way
pressure
hypotheiss predicting that task performance should improve with increased emotional arousal
inverted-U hypothesis
a physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for attacking or fleeing an enemy
fight-or-flight
refers to active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress
coping
any behavior that is intended to hurt someone, either physically or verbally
aggression
consist of spending an inordiante amount of time on the internet and inability to control online use
internet addcition
largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt
defense mechanisms
relatively healthful efforst that people make to deal with stressful events
constructive coping
involves physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion that is attributable to long-term involvement in emotionally demanding situations
burnout
involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major catastrophic event
posttraumatic stress
refers to various types of aid and succor provided by members of one's social network
social support
a model of the body's stress response, consisting of three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
general adaptation syndrome
physical ailments with a genuine organic basis that are caused in part by psychological factors, especially emotional distress
psychosomatic diseases
someone who is very competitive, impatient and concerned aboutthe availability of time, angry and hostile
Type A personality
someone who is relatively relaxed, easygoing, and amicable
Type B personality
the body's defensive reaction to invasion by bacteria, viral agents, or other foreign substances
immune response