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44 Cards in this Set

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What is the glandular portion of the pituitary called?
Anterior Pituitary
What is the neural portion of the pituitary called?
Posterior Pituitary
What are the three parts of the Adenohypophysis?
AKA Anterior Pituitary:
Distalis
Intermedia
Tuberalis
What are the three parts of the Neurohypophysis?
AKA Posterior Pituitary:
Nervosa
Infundibular (stem/stalk)
Median eminence
When is a Pituitary Gland larger?
In Women (in general)
or during pregnancy
What is the Anterior Pituitary derived from?
Upgrowth of Oral Ectoderm from the roof of the mouth.
What is the Posterior Pituitary derived from?
Downgrowth of Diencephalon from the brain.
Magnocellular Neurons
Large diameter neurons of the hypothalamus.
What do Magnocellular Neurons synthesize?
ADH and Oxytocin
Where do magnocellular neurons terminate?
Fenestrated capillaries in the Posterior Pituitary
What are the principal stimuli for ADH secretion?
Increased Plasma Osmolarity
Decreased Blood Volume
Stress
What aare the principal stimuli for Oxytocin secretion?
Suckling
Vaginal Distention
What are the three categories of hormones of the Anterior Pituitary?
Corticolipotropins
Glycoprotein
Somatomammotropins
What are all corticolipotropins derived from?
pro-opiomelanocortin which is cleaved into:
N-terminal fragment
ACTH and Beta-LPH
What is the principle action of ADH?
open water channels in connecting tubule
Constriction of arterioles = Higher BP
What is the principle action of Oxytocin?
Milk production
Uterine Contraction
What hormones are considered corticolipotropins?
ACTH
Beta-Lipoprotein
Beta-Endorphin
What is the principle action of ACTH?
Stimulates Adrenal gland to synthesize glucocorticoids
What hormones are considered Glycoprotein?
LH
FSH
TSH
What is unique about the structure of Glycoprotein hormones?
Consist of 2 noncovalently linked alpha & beta subunits. All alpha units are the same.
What is another name for TSH (besides Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)?
Thyrotropin
What hormones are considered Somatomammotropins?
GH
Prolactin
What is the princple functions of PRL?
Stimulate breast development during pregnancy
Stimulate postpartum lactation
Acidophilic-staining cells of the Pars Distalis may secrete what hormones?
GH
PRL
note: same color as WBCs
Basophilic-staining cells of the Pars Distalis may secrete what hormones?
ACTH (most basophilic)
LH
FSH
TSH
What does Oxytocin antagonists do in males?
Block erections
What are the five types of cells in the Pars Distalis
Somatotroph (GH)
Lactotroph (PRL)
Corticolipotroph (ACTH)
Gonadotroph (LH/FSH)
Thyrotroph (TSH)
What are the most common types of cells in the Pars Distalis?
Somatotrophs (50%)
What are the second most common types of cells in the Pars Distalis?
Lactotrophs (10-25%)
Which cell types are frequently found disbursed laterally in the Pars Distalis?
Somatotrophs
Which cells are most frequently found in the anteromedial part of the Pars Distalis?
Thyrotrophs
Corticotrophs
Which cells are most frequently found randomly dispersed througout the Pars Distalis?
Lactotrophs
Gonadotrophs
What stimulates Somatotroph Cells?
GRH
What inhibits Somatotroph Cells?
Somatostatin
What Inhibits Lactotroph Cells?
Dopamine
What Stimulates Thyrotroph Cells?
TRH
What stimulates Corticotroph Cells?
CRH
What stimulates Gonadotrophs?
GnRH
What other peptides does GRH show homology with?
Gastrin
VIP
Why feature of TRH makes it possible to have so few Thyrotrophic Cells in the Pars Distalis?
The prohormone of TRH contains six copies of TRH.
What are the names of the nuclei observed in the pars nervosa?
special glial cells called pituicytes
Increased production of ACTH in the Pituitary gland can lead to what secondary physiological change?
Increased skin pigmentation due to MSH contained in the intermediate proteins from which ACTH is derived.
What factors stimulate GH secretion?
hypoglycemia
decreased free fatty acids
arginine
fasting/starvation
puberty (estrogen/testosterone)
exercise
stress
sleep
What factors inhibit GH secretion?
Hyperglycemia
Increased free fatty acid conc.
obesity
senescence
somatostatin
somatomedin
GH
Pregnancy