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20 Cards in this Set

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Sensorimotor Stage
Birth to 2 years: thought is based on action; learn about objects and people through sensory information and the actions that can be performed on them. Prominent learning through circular reactions (behaviours performed to reproduce events that initially occured by chance).

Important accomplishments:
-development of object permanence
-beginning of an understanding of causality
-emergence of deferred imitation and make-believe play
Sensory Motor Stage-Substage 1: Relexive Schemas
birth to 1 month: exercises relexed and begins to gain control over them
Sensorimotor Stage: Substage 2: Primary Circular Reactions
1 to 4 months: attempts to repeat pleasurable events invoving their own body (e.g., thumbsucking)
Sensorimotor Stage: Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions
4 to 8 months: attempts to reproduce pleasurable events involving other people and objects (e.g., shaking a rattle)
Sensorimotor Stage: Substage 4: Coordinated Secondary Circular Reactions
8 to 12 months: conbines secondary circular reactions (schemes) into new, more complex action sequences (e.g., uncovers an object, then grasps it)
Sensorimotor Stage: Substage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions
12 to 18 months: deliberately varies an action or action sequence to discover the consequences of doing so (e.g., dropping a toy from different hights)
Sensorimotor Stage: Substage 6: Mental Representations
18 to 24 months: develops representational thought (internal representation of absent objects and past events), which enables them to think about events and anticipate the consequences of an action
Preoperational Stage
2 to 7 years: key characteristic is symbolic (semiotic) function (which is an extension of symbolic thought); symbolic function permits the child to learn through the use of language, mental images, and other symbols that stand for things that are not present.

Able to engage in symbolic play and can solve problems mentally.

Limitations include:
-precausal (transductive) reasoning: incomplete understanding of cause and effect
-magical thinking:thinking about something will cause it to happen
-animism: attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects
-Egocentrism: inability to seperate their perspective from that of others (unable to imagine another person's point of view)
-irreversability: do not recognize that actions can be reversed
-centration: focus on most noticable features of an object
-consequently, unable to conserve (changing one dimension does not change other dimensions)
Concrete Operational Stage
7 to 11 years: capable of mental operations (logical rules for transforming and manipulating information)
-able to classify in more sophisticated ways, understand part-whole relationships in relational terms, and conserve.

Horizontal decalage refers to the gradual acquisition of conservation abilities (first numbers, then liquid, length, weight and displacement volume)
Formal Operational Stage
11 plus years: able to think abstractly, relativistically and hypothetically; can develop competing hypotheses and strategies for systematically testing the hypotheses.

In adolescence: renewed egocentrism-attributable to increased capacity to think about thinking.
-includes the personal fable (belief the one is unique and is not subject to the natural laws that govern others)
-imaginary audience (belief that one is always the centre of attention)
Cross-cultural studies
ages that children reach stages may vary
Young children
may be more competant than Piaget stages give them credit for...if the task is familiar.
magical thinking
The belief that thinking about something will cause it to happen. Occurs in the preoperational stage (2 to 7 years)
animism
Attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects
object permanence
begins in substage 4 (coordinated secondary circular reactions) of the sensorimotor stage
Centration
focus on the most noticable feature of objects. Occurs in the preoperational stage. Conservation does not develop until the concrete operational stage (7-11 years) and the gradual acquisition of conservation abilities is called horizontal decalage.
personal fable
Occurs during the stage of adolescent egocentrism in the formal operational stage.

It is the belief that one is unique and not subject to the natural laws that govern others.
Imaginary Audience
Occurs in the stage of adolescent egocentrism which is in the formal operational stage.

It is the belief that one is always the center of attention.
Irreversability
Characteristic of the preoperational stage--children do not realize that actions can be reversed.
precausal (transductive) reasoning
reflects an incomplete understanding of cause and effect. Manifestations include magical thinking and animism