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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
alpha particle
The positively charged nucleus of a helium atom.
atom
The smallest entity of an element, having all the characteristics of that element and consisting of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons.
atomic mass
The sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in an atom's nucleus.
atomic number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an element.
atomic theory
A theory about the nature and structure of atoms.
Bohr Model
A theory that suggested that electrons orbit a positively charged nucleus at distinct distances from that nucleus.
charge
A fundamental property of matter, responsible for producing electric forces.
compound
A material made up of two or more elements.
electron
A tiny, negatively charged particle that orbits an atom's nucleus.
element
A substance composed of atoms that all have the same number of protons.
gas
Matter without a definite volume or shape.
heterogeneous
A combination of materials that can be distinguished and separated.
homogeneous
A combination of two or more substances that are blended evenly together.
isotope
An atom of an element containing a different number of neutrons in its nucleus.
liquid
Matter with a definite volume but a shape that can change.
matter
Anything that takes up space and has mass.
mixture
Two or more substances that can be separated.
molecule
A grouping of at least two atoms.
neutron
A particle with no charge that lives inside an atom's nucleus.
periodic table
An arrangement of the elements according to their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties are in the same column.
Plum Pudding Model
A theory that suggested that atoms were made of a positive material with electrons interspersed throughout, like raisins in a plum pudding.
proton
A positively charged particle that lives inside an atom's nucleus.
Quantum Model
A theory that suggests that electrons orbit nuclei not as physical particles, but as probability clouds.
solid
Matter that has a definite shape and volume.
substance
Either an element or a compound that cannot be physically separated.
alkali metals
Highly reactive elements found in Group 1A.
alkaline earth metals
Reactive elements found in Group 2A.
group
A collection of elements in a single column on the periodic table.
halogens
Reactive elements found in Group 7A.
noble gases
Nonreactive elements found in Group 8A.
period
A collection of elements in a single row of the periodic table.
transition elements
Elements found in Groups 3 - 12 (old system).
electronegativity
The ability of an atom to pull a bonding electron toward itself.
electron shells
Collections of electrons at a common distance from the nucleus.
family
A collection of elements that exhibit similar behavior due to their electron configurations.
ionization energy
The energy required to remove the outermost electrons of a gaseous atom.
valence electrons
Electrons that make up the chemical properties of the element.
valence shells
The outermost collection of electrons that orbit the nucleus of an atom.