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11 Cards in this Set

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Chloride depletion and K+ depletion, when marked stimulate H+ secretion into the renal tubule lumen, resulting in a metabolic alkalosis. TRUE/FALSE
Does sodium depletion cause H+ loss?
Yes. Na+ depletion results not only in increased sodium reabsorption, but also in increased H+ secretion into the renal tubules, since H+ exchanges for sodium during the increased sodium reabsorption.
What are the ingredients of a buffering system?
These include a mixture of molecules that prevent the pH from changing significantly on adding acid or base. This consists of the mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base.
Explain this equation?
HB(weak acid)---H+(strong acid) + B-(conjugate weak base).
Addition to the mixture of a strong acid does not drastically lower the pH, because the weak base partly neutralizes the added acid. The reaction moves to the left, reducing the amount of added H+.
What is the bicarbonate buffer system?
This is the main extracellular buffering system and the one generally thought of in considering clinical matters of acid base balance.
What are the main intracellular buffers?
These are proteins and phosphates. the weak acid and conjugate base are H2CO3 and HCO3- respectively, which interact in the general reaction:
H2CO3---H+ + HCO3-.
Because the amount of undissociated H2CO3 is minimal, the weak acid, may be considered to be CO2: Write the equation that depicts this.
CO2+H2O--H2CO3--H+ +HCO3-.
The addition of a strong acid(H+) will move the reaction to the left, toward CO2 and H2O, rather than leaving an abundance of H+, floating around the bloodstream. This leftward shift will blunt the effect of the added H+ and the result will be less acidic than would otherwise be the case.
Regarding the above equation, what would happen with the addition of a strong base?
This will move the reaction to the right, because the H+ ion on the right disappears;CO2 and H2O combine to form H+ and HCO3-, thereby replenishing some H+ and rendering the final result less alkaline than it would otherwise be.
Do the lungs affect CO2 concentration?
yes. They do this by the exhalation of excess CO2.The lungs influence CO2 levels through brain stem respiratory centers that respond indirectly to alterations in CO2 levels.
What is the result of increased blood CO2 or H+ levels?
The stimulation of the brain stem respiratory center to increase respiration, to blow off CO2 and decrease blood acidity.
What are the main stimuli to the brain stem neurons?
H+, but H+ does not cross the blood brain barrier easily. CO2 does and then reacts with water to produce the necessary H+ ions, which stimulate the respiratory center cells to increase respiration and blow off CO2.