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46 Cards in this Set

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Can glucagon be produced in excess?
yes. It is found in glucagon secreting tumors(glucagonomas). patients may develop diabetes mellitus as well as a strange skin rash called necrolytic migratory erythema.
What is somatostatin?
It has 2 places of origen; the delta cells of the pancreas and the hypothalamus. Its structure is a peptide.
Glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and glucagon stimulate somatostatin secretion.
What is the function of somatostatin?
In the hypothalamus, somatostatin inhibits growth hormone secretion.
Pancreatic somatostatin inhibits digestion and use of absorbed nutrients. It inhibits gastr0-intestinal motility, inhibits secretion of HCl and a number of digestive enzymes in the stomach small intestine and pancreas and inhibits absorption of glucose and triglycerides in the intestine. It inhibits as well, insulin and glucagon.
What is a somatostatinoma?
Excess production of somatostatin. patients develop diabetes mellitus, malabsorption syndromes and weight loss.
What is estradiol?
It is an important estrogen. Its origen is the ovary, and its structure is typically steroidal. It is regulated by FSH.
What is the function of estrogen?
1. development of breasts, female sex organs and secondary female characteristics.
2. proliferation of uterine endometrium(preovulatory phase) of the menstrual cycle.
3. Function in part to prevent ovulation by preventing a rise in LH and FSH.
4. Thicken cervical mucus, making it less receptive to sperm and will inhibit implantation of the ovum.
Are there any dangers when it is used as a birth control measure?
There is a small increased risk of thromboembolic and cerebrovascular disease with possible carcinoma of the cervix.
What is progesterone?
Its origen is from the corpus luteum of the ovary, and its structure is steroidal, and it is regulated by LH.
What is the function of progesterone?
It prepares the endometrium to receive the fertilized egg during the post-ovulatory(progestational) phase of the menstrual cycle.
What is testosterone?
Its origen is in the testes. Its structure is steroidal and it is regulated by LH.
What is the function of testosterone?
Development of male genitalia
secondary sex characteristics
spermatogenesis
libido
Skeletal/muscular development
What is the result of teastosterone excess?
In children a testicular testosterone secreting tumor may cause premature sexual development and the child may be short. This is due to the fact that testosterone promotes closure of the bone epiphyseal growth plates.
deficiency results in impotence.
What is Chorionic gonadotrophin(HCG)?
Its origen is the chorion and placenta. Its structure is glycoprotein.
What is the function of HCG?
It prevents the corpus luteum from involuting in pregnancy, allowing a rise of estrogen and progesterone.
It stimulates testosterone production in the testes of the male fetus.
The normal menstrual cycle occurs about once every 28 days. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. day 1 of the cycle coincides with the onset of menstruation, which lasts about 4-5 days.
In this early stage of menstruation, what is occurring with FSH?
FSH during this time stimulates the ovarian follicles to mature and produce estrogen, which then induces proliferation of the uterine endometrium.
Within this time frame of menstruation, is their any follicular activity?
A group of follicles enlarge at the beginning of the cycle, but after the 5th or 6th day, a single one of them grows to reach a size of about 2 cm, whereas the others degenerate.
What happens with the mature follicle?
In addition to estrogen secretion, the mature follicle contains the ovum to be fertilized after ovulation.
days 1-13 of the cycle are referred to as the "follicular or proliferative" phase of the cycle.
In the usual 28 day menstrual cycle, ovulation occurs about day 14. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.A cycle may occasionally be 21-35 days long, yet ovulation occurs about day 14 prior to menstruation.
Are there hormonal changes just prior to ovulation?
Yes. There is an increase in estrogen and to some degree progesterone, coinciding with the follicular maturation.
Estrogen, in addition to its effects on uterine proliferation triggers a sudden release in the pituitary production of....
LH and FSH, especially LH. The direct stimulus to both LH and FSH secretion is hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone, GnRH.
GnRH must be released from the hypothalamus in pulses. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Continuous administration of GnRH will not stimulate FSH and LH secretion. the surge in LH induces ovulation.
Why else is the increase in LH production important?
It stimulates as well the development of the corpus luteum, which produces not only estrogen but large amounts of progesterone.
What other important effects are due to progesterone?
It causes the uterus to enter a new phase beyond the proliferative stage, the "luteal" phase in which there are endometrial secretory gland development and secretion to prepare the uterine endometrium for implantation of the ovum, should it be fertilized.
What happens if fertilization does not occur?
The increased estrogen and progesterone from the CL and another luteal hormone, inhibin, feed back to the pituitary gland and hypothalamus causing decreased LH and FSH production. The CL degenerates.
Does estrogen have a paradoxical effect on LH and FSH secretion?
Rising levels of estrogen in the early part of the cycle stimulate FSH and LH secretion, whereas chronic presence of estrogen suppresses FSH secretion.
The estrogen and progesterone in birth control pills act to suppress ovulation mainly by inhibiting FSH and LH secretion. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. The dominant ovarian follicle cannot develop without FSH and there is then no rising estrogen to trigger the LH surge and ovulation.
What effect does chronic excess progesterone have on the endometrium?
It renders the endometrium atrophic, a reason why it is given in large amounts in endometriosis, to control the atopic pathologic areas of endometrial development.
What happens in the "morning after pill"?
A large dose of estrogen and progesterone thickens the endometrium, which then sloughs on withdrawal of the hormones.
What happens with degeneration of the corpus luteum in the normal menstrual cycle?
estrogen and progesterone production decrease; the uterine endometrium can no longer be maintained, and sloughs(menstruation).
Does menstrual blood normally clot?
No. The sloughing endometrium releases a fibrinolysin that inhibits clotting. the decrease of estrogen and progesterone is noted by the hypothalamus and reinitiates the cycle.
if fertilization occurs, it generally happens in the Fallopian tube. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. The ovum can be fertilized within only about a day after ovulation. since sperm remain viable for only about 1-3 days, intercourse must take place within about a day or so before or after ovulation.
How is basal body temperature related to ovulation?
This occurs just after ovulation and persists for the last half of the menstrual cycle.
How soon does a fertilized egg reach the uterus?
In about 3-4 days in the lateral end of the fallopian tube but does not implant in the endometrium until 3-5 days later.
Implantation causes the uterus to quickly produce a much needed hormone. What is it?
Human chorionic gonadotropin. It has effects similar to LH.
It maintains the CL, giving a continuous supply of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy and preventing the uterine endothelium from sloughing.
is the placenta itself capable of hormone production?
The placenta is capable of estrogen and progesterone secretion in the latter two trimesters of pregnancy, so the CL is not needed in those times.
How does the placenta develop?
It develops from a fusion of embryonic and maternal tissue, along with a closely interdigitating blood supply that connects the maternal and fetal circulations via diffusion to and from the mother and fetus.
can HCG be used as a diagnostic tool?
Yes. The rapid rise in HCG provides the basis for pregnancy testing. One can detect elevated HCG levels of pregnancy as early as 8 days after ovulation. It peaks about 2 months into pregnancy, thereafter declining to reach a steady stse that lasts from about 6 months to the end of pregnancy.
What starts the process of menopause?
The primordial follicles gradually decrease in number through the years, eventually leading to menopause, where their disappearance means a decrease in the production of estrogen and progesterone.
What is Clomiphene?
It is a drug that inhibits estrogen feedback receptors in the hypothalmus, thereby increasing the production of GnRH and gonadotrophic hormones.
It is used to treat infertility in women with hypothalamic deficiency. infertility can also be Approached with the use of LH and FSH.
What is gastrin?
Its origen is in the gastric mucosa, and is a polypeptide by structure.
Its secretion is stimulated by vagus nerve, distension of duodenum and peptides.
It is inhibited by secretin, gastric inhibitory peptide and excess acidity.
What is the function of gastrin/
It activcates secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor.
Excess may result in duodenal ulcers.
where is the origen of secretin?
Duodenal and jejunal mucosa.
Its structure is peptide in nature, and it is regulated by the vagus nerve, and direct contact with food, fat and acid.
What is the function of secretin?
It inhibits gastric acid secretion, and stimulates the pancreas to secrete water and bicarbonate.
Stimulates stomach pepsin secretion.
Where is the origen of Cholecyctokinin?
Duodenal and jejunal mucosal cells.
Its structure is peptidic, and its secretion is stimulated by the vagus nerve, direct contact with food, fat and acid.
What is the function of Cholecystokinin?
It stimulates pancreatic secretion of enzymes and bicarbonate, stimulates gallbladder contraction.
Decreases gastric motility.