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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Does the esophagus secrete mucus.
Yes. Its function is for lubrication.
List 6 secretory cells of the stomach.
1. Chief cells
2. Parietal cell
3. Mucus neck cell
4. Surface epithelial cells
5. Mucosal cells
6. Gastrin cells
What are Chief cells?
Also known as peptic cells. This cell is stimulated by gastrin, pepsin and HCL.
It secretes pepsinogen, which changes to pepsin in the presence of H+ to break down proteins to peptides.
What is a parietal cell?
Also known as an "oxyntic cell". This cell is stimulated by vagus activation, gastrin histamine, amino acids and peptides in the stomach and the duodenum.
What else can stimulate a parietal cell?
It can as well be stimulated by local and central reflexes from gastric and duodenal distension.
What do parietal cells secrete?
1.They secrete HCL, which facilitates pepsinogen change to pepsin, mild hydrolysis of starches, It is bactericidal, and may enhance mineral absorption.
2. Intrinsic factor- Binds to B12 and facilitates its absorption in the small intestine.
What inhibits parietal cells?
These cells are inhibited by low gastric and intestinal pH, and fat in intestinal chyme, via secretin, cholecystokinin, GIP, somatostatin secretion and local neural reflexes.
What is the function of a mucus neck cell?
It secretes mucus, and protects the mucusa from acid and pepsin.
What do surface epithelial cells do?
This cell produces bicarbonates, that protect the mucosa against acid.
What is the function of the Mucosal cells in the gastric antrum?
These cells secrete Histamine.
This diffuses to stimulate parietal cells to produce acid, in conjunction with gastrin and vagal acetylcholine.
What do antrum gastric cells secrete?
They secrete gastrin.
This is secreted by virtue of vagus activation, by the distension of the duodenum, and by peptides.
What inhibits antrum gastrin cells?
They are inhibited by secretin, GIP, and excess acidity.
What is the function of gastrin?
Via the bloodstream, it stimulates parietal cells to secrete HCl;
It increases intestinal motility and stimulates pyloric contraction and relaxation of pyloric sphincter, and stimulates pancreatic enzyme secretion, and relaxes the ileocecal valve.
What are the major gland cells of the duodenum?
1.The Brunners glands. These secrete alkaline mucus.
2. Epithelial cells of Crypts of Lieberkuhn; found within the intestinal villi.
What is the major stimulatory factor of the Epithelial cells (Lieberkuhn)
The vagus stimulates secretion in general;
digestive enzyme secretion is stimulated by direct contact with food;
fat and acid stimulate secretin, GIP and cholecystokinin secretion.
List 12 chemicals produced by the lieberkuhn epithelial cells.
1. Mucus
2. Maltase
3. Lactase
4. Sucrase
5. Peptidases
6. Intestinal lipase
7. Intestinal esterases
8. Secretin
9. GIP
What does lactase do/
It splits lactose to glucose and galactose.
What do intestinal esterases do?
They break down cholesterol esters to free cholesterol and fatty acids.
What does secretin do?
It decreases gastrin secretion and motility;
Stimulates bile salt secretion in liver and pancreatic bicarbonate secretion;
Inhibits gastrointestinal motility.
What does GIP do?
It inhibits gastrin secretion;
decreases the speed of gastric emptying.
List 4 functions of Cholecyctokinin.
1. Decreases gastric motility
2. stimulates pancreatic enzyme and bicarbonate secretion
3. Stimulates gall bladder contraction
4. causes vasodilation in intestinal mucosa.
What is the function of Enterokinase/
It activates changes of trypsinogen to trypsin;
chymotrypsinogen to chymotrypsin;
procarboxypolypeptidase to carboxypolypeptidase.
What is Bulbogastrone?
It inhibits parietal cell acid secretion.
What are the two major exocrine cells found in the pancreas?
1. Pancreatic ductule cells- secrete bicarbonate
2. Exocrine cells- The secretion of these exocrine cells is stimulated by vagus stimulation, cholecyctokinin and secretin.
List the chemicals produced by pancreatic exocrine cells.
1. Pancreatic Amylase
2. Trypsinogen(activated by enterokinase)
3. Chymotrypsinogen(activated by trypsin)
4. Procarboxypolypeptidase(activated by trypsin)
5. Pancreatic Lipase
6. Cholesterol esterase
7. Phospholipase
8. Nucleases.
What does pancreatic amylase do?
It changes starch to oligosaccharides.
What does trypsinogen do?
It breaks down proteins to peptides and amino acids.
What do nucleases do?
They change nucleic acids to nucleotides.
List three types of pancreatic endocrine cells.
Beta cells- secrete insulin, and can increase intestinal motility.
Alpha cells- secrete glucagon, and decrease intestinal motility.
Delta islet cells- secrete somatostatin, general effects in decreasing digestion and absorption; inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion.
What is the function of bile salts?
Bile salt micelles emulsify fats into smaller particles that can be attacked by pancreatic lipase.
Micelles carry fats to villi for absorption. Bile salt excretion decreases body cholesterol.
What type of cells are found in the colon?
Mucus/Epithelial cells.
What do the Epithelial cells secrete?
Bicarbonate. This will help neutralize bacterial products.
What stimulates these colonic cells/
They are stimulated by vagus and by direct contact with food;
They are inhibited by sympathetics.
What is Celiac disease/
the intestinal villi are damaged by sensitivity to gluten(found in wheat and rye)
Food although adequately digested is not adequately absorbed. The appearance of fatty stools(steatorrhea) is usually the first sign. Multiple and nutritional deficiencies(vitamins, A, D, E, and K. There is general malabsorption of fat.
What is Zollinger-Ellison syndrome?
This results in severe duodenal ulceration from gastrin producing tumors that induced marked gastric acidity.
Can NSAIDs cause ulcers?
Yes. Aspirin and other NSAIDs contribute to ulcer formation by inhibiting secretion of both HCO3- and protective mucus.
Can epinephrine be ulcerogenic.
Yes. Its elevation(stress)may cause ulcers by blocking HCO3- secretion.
What is the difference between Cimetidine and Omeprazole?
Cimetidine is an H2 blocker and will block histamine receptors.
Omeprazole- blocks H+ secretion by inhibiting the H+, K+-ATPase pump of the parietal cells.