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17 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Name 1 cardiac drug that interferes with the Na+-K+ pump.
Digitalis. It interferes with this mechanism, resulting in delayed conduction through the AV node(prolongs AV node refractory period).
This may be helpful in slowing dangerous tachycardias like atrial flutter and fibrillation.
What is the exact chemical consequence of interfering with this mechanism?
It increases intracellular sodium, because sodium is not pumped out of the cell so efficiently. This increased intracellular sodium then exchanges more readily with extracellular Ca++, thereby increasing intracellular Ca++. This in turn will augment cardiac contractility.
What do calcium channel blockers do?
They delay the influx of calcium into the cell.They decrease myocardial contractility and may be useful in decreasing O2 consumption in angina.
Can calcium channel blockers have any other peripheral effects?
Yes. They also interfere with smooth muscle contractility are also useful as vasodilators in treating hypertension and in increasing coronary blood flow.
List 2 Calcium channel blockers.
1. Verpamil
2. Diltiazem
These may slow the heart rate if they also delay the recovery of the calcium channel from depolarization.
Which receptors are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system?
These receptors will increase sympathetic nerve effects.
Presynaptic alpha-2 receptors inhibit the release of norepinephrine from the presynaptic neuron, stimulating them will decrease sympathetic nerve effects. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. If you wish to inhibit the sympathetic nervous system, you may use alpha-1, beta-1 and beta-2 inhibitors(antagonists) or alpha-2 stimulators(agonists).
List several alpha-2 agonists and define their use.
these are useful adjuncts in treating hypertension. They decrease peripheral vascular resistance and reduce heart rate and contractility.
List 2 alpha-1 antagonists.
These reduce blood pressure by decreasing peripheral vascular resistance.
List 2 alpha antagonists that nonselectively antagonize both alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptors.
These may also decrease blood pressure by vasodilation. Reflex tachycardia is a possible side effect.
List three drugs that are sympathetic antagonists that enter the postganglionic neuron nerve terminals and block the release of norepinephrine.
What do beta blockers do?
Beta blockers decrease heart rate and contractility and decrease conduction time through the AV node because of the corresponding locations of beta -1 receptors in the heart.
Can beta blockers affect kidney granular cells?
As beta-1 receptors on kidney granular cells(juxtaglomerular apparatus) normally cause renin release when stimulated, beta -1 blockers also reduce blood pressure through inhibition of renin release.
What effect do beta blockers have directly on the heart?
They reduce heart rate, contractility and afterload(the tension in the ventricular muscle fibers during systolic contraction).
They also reduce cardiac oxygen demand and can be useful in treating angina.
Do beta blockers have untoward side effects?
Yes. They can cause heart failure by reducing cardiac output in patients who already have significantly impaired left ventricular function.
Conduction block is another potential side effect.
Beta blockers are useful intreating cardiac arrhthmias as they can reduce a hyperactive automaticity of the SA node as well as ectopic foci of cardiac stimulation. TRUE/FALSE
Is there a risk regarding drugs that non selectively antagonize both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors?
Yes. There is a risk of inducing bronchospasm and vasospasm, because beta-2 stimulation is important in maintaining broncho and vasodilation. These drugs must be avoided in patients with asthma and COPD because they may cause additional bronchospasm.