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14 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are some approaches to immunosuppressive treatment?
1. deplete the lymphocyte population(antilymphocyte serum, antimitotic agents, irradiation, thoracic duct drainage.
2. Remove antibodies via plasma exchange
3. Cytokine interference via corticosteroids
4. Lymphocyte interference via Cyclosporine A which appears to interfere with T helper production of cytokines as well as with presentation of antigen to T helper cell.
What is IgE desensitization?
Induce tolerance to an immune response by giving massive doses of an antigen or small dosages repeatedly.
Clinical desensitization is designed to decrease IgE levels in allergy by administering increasing quantities of the offending antigen in SQ injections over a course of several weeks or months.
What is immunological anergy?
occasionally a patient may become anergic(immunologically unresponsive) to an overwhelming infection. In diffuse overwhelming tbc, the patient may no longer exhibit a response to a tuburculin test.
List 4 modes of immunostimulation.
1. passive immunization- administration of antibody(tetanus, snakebite, hepatitis B antiserum).
2. Active immunization- vaccines
3. Immune cell introduction(grafting of bone marrow or thymus)
4. Adjuvants- substances that enhance the antigenic response(oil immersions, liposomes and cytokines).
What is the Rh factor?
people with the Rh antigen are called Rh positive(Rh+). the main Rh antigen is called type D antigen. Rh+ refers to the presence of the type D antigen.
How does the Rh factor affect pregnancy?
An Rh+ mother wont develop Rh antibodies, so her fetus will be unaffected, regardless of whether it is Rh+ or Rh-.
If the mother is Rh-, then in response to the fetal cells of an Rh+ fetus, she will produce Rh antibodies.
her antibody production will not occur in time to affect the first fetus, but can affect the second pregnancy with an Rh+ fetus, since the antibodies are present for the 2nd pregnancy. TRUE/FALSE
What is erythroblastosis fetalis?
if the fetus is affected, a hemolytic condition of RBCs exists. Erythroblastosis refers to the nucleated RBC precursors in the blood that the infant develops to replace the RBCs damaged by the maternal antibodies.
What is Kernicterus?
Damaging deposition of bilirubin in the brain, especially in the basal ganglia, may arise from the jaundice that appears from the RBC breakdown.
Even though the baby is Rh+, transfuse the baby with Rh- blood, because if one uses Rh+ blood, it might react with Rh+ antibodies still circulating from the mother.
How is Rh incompatibility prevented?
The mother is given anti-Rh factor antibody right after the first delivery. this antibody combines with the fetal antigen and prevents the antigen from stimulating the mothers production of anti-Rh antibodies.
A transfusion of Rh+ blood into an Rh- person(who has never contacted Rh+ blood before) causes no significant immediate reaction since it takes months for the antibody to develop to a significant degree. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. However, within months there may be a reaction. renal shutdown is occasionally seen from a transfusion reaction due to the plugging of renal tubules with hemoglobin, in addition to renal vasoconstriction.
What type of tissue testing is employed for transplantation procedures?
One can indeed tissue type organs, examining for similarities in the HLA/MHC group of antigens, which are the most important antigens for tissue typing.
How is HLA testing done?
Lymphocytes contain the HLA antigens. if the patients lymphocytes lyse when presented with a mixture of complement and antiserum against a specific HLA antigen, this suggets that the specific HLA antigen is present.
What else is HLA testing used for?
Paternity disputes.
Specific HLA types are also useful in predicting the liklihood of developing certain diseases, such as ankylosing sponylitis, which are associated with particular HLA molecules.