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19 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What 2 factors determine female phenotypic sex?
Absence of MIF; Meullerian duct develops into uterus, fallopian tubes and upper vagina
Estrogen, stimulates urogenital sinus and tubercle to differentiate into lower vagina.
Name the main cell types of the ovary and their associated products.
1. Theca cell: testosterone
2. Granulosa cell: estradiol(from testosterone)
3. Primordial follicle: mature ovum for ovulation
4. Luteal cell(of corpus luteum) progesterone
What enzyme converts testosterone to estradiol?
Aromatase
Describe the menstrual cycle and oogenesis cycle:
Follicular proliferative phase:
Days, 1-14 (variable)
1. Estradiol increased and progesterone decreased
2. FSH and LH decrease(neg feedback)
3. FSH and LH receptors increase(up regulation)
4. Multiple primordial follicles enlarge(only one becomes the Graafian follicle, others undergo atresia)
Regarding the oogenesis cycle, describe ovulation.
Day 15
1. Estradiol increase(via positive feedback)---LH increased---Ovulation(estrogen induced LH surge)
2. Temporary estradiol decrease after ovulation.
Describe the Luteal(secretory) phase.
Days 15-28
1. progersterone increased and estradiol increased
2. Corpus luteum matures and produces progesterone
3. Endometrium vascularity builds to prepare for implantation of fertilized ovum.
4. Corpus Luteum regressesmif no fertilization occurs----progesterone decreases and estradiol decreases.
Why is the luteal phase fixed in duration?
CL has a fixed 14 day life span.
Onset of menses marks day 1 of menstrual cycle. True/False
True
What is menstruation?
Sloughing of endometrium (functional layer) due to decreased progesterone and estradiol.
How is estrogen synthesized?
Cholesterol---(cholesterol desmolase)---Pregnenolone----Androstenedione---(21 beta hydroxlase)---Testosterone---(aromatase)---estradiol.
Name the actions of estrogen.
1. Maturation of fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix
2. Puberty
3. Female secondary sexual characteristics, breasts
4. development of granulosa cells
5. Maintenence of pregnancy
6. Up regulation of LH, estrogen and progesterone receptors.
Name the actions of progesterone.
Maintenance of pregnancy
Maintenance of luteal phase and uterine secretory activity
negative feedback on FSH and LH.
What factors regulate the menstrual cycle, estrogen and progesterone secretion?
1. GnRH
2. FSH/LH
3. Estrogen(neg feedback)
4. Estrogen(pos feedback-ovulation)
5. Progesterone(neg feedback).
Name the main hormone producers of pregnancy and their associated products.
Corpus Luteum
1. hCG
2. Estradiol
3. Progesterone(conception to week 12)

Featl adrenal gland-
DHEA-S
Placenta
1. Estriol
2. Progesterone(week 6 to delivery
3. HPL
How is estriol synthesized in pregnancy?
DHEA-S(fetal adrenals---(aromatase)---Estriol(placenta)
How do the concentrations of the following hormones change during pregnancy?
TSH- minimal
LH/FSH- Basal level
GH- minimal
PRL-increases to term
ACTH-minimal
Estradiol-increases to term
Estriol- increases to term
Estrone- Increases to term
Progesterone- increases to term
HPL-increases to term
Testosterone- highly increased
DHEA- decreased
Cortisol- increased
hCG- increases then decreases
What factors influence lactation?
Increase of PRL through pregnancy accompanied by the decrease of estrogens and progesterones after delivery.
How is lactation maintained?
By breast feeding, which increases PRL and Oxytocin
How is ovulation suppressed during lactation?
PRL inhibits GnRH and therefore LH and FSH.