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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Compare pulmonary versus systemic circulation.
Pressures and resistance are much lower in the pulmonary circulation.
Compare the following parameters in adult and fetal pulmonary circulation.
Pressure; Adult is low
Fetal is high
Resistance; Adult is low
Fetal is high
Flow; Adult is high
Fetal is low
What happens to resistance as pressure in the pulmonary artery increases?
Resistance decreass even lower because previously collapsed capillaries open up(recruitment), and individual capillary segments widen(distension)
Where does pulmonary blood flow come from?
Cardiac output of the right ventricle.
What factors contribute to the large compliance of the pulmonary arterial tree?
1. Short pulmonary arterial branches
2. All pulmonary arteries have larger diameters than their counterpart systemic aretries
3. Vessels are very thin and distensible
How does blood flowing through the pulmonary arteries differ from that flowing through the systemic arteries?
Blood in the pulmonary arteries is partially deoxygenated, while that in the systemic arteries is oxygenated.
Blood flowing through the bronchial arteries is partially deoxygenated. TRUE/FALSE
What does bronchial arterial blood supply?
Supporting tissues of the lungs including the connective tissue, septa, and large and small bronchi.
All of the blood in the left ventricle comes from the right ventricle.
False. Some of the blood enters the bronchial blood flow, and blood that flows through the coronary arteries enters the left side of the heart without entering the right atrium.
At which point is the pressure in the pulmonary aretry essentially equal to the pressure in the right ventricle?
During the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle.
What are the average pulmonary arterial pressures?
Systole: 25mm/Hg
Diastole: 8mm/Hg
How is the pulmonary wedge pressure obtained?
Via a catheter intoduced via the systemic venous circulation(femoral vein) that is wedged in a pulmonary aretriole.
What does the pulmonary wedge pressure estimate?
1. Pulmonary venous pressure
2. Left atrial pressure
3. Left ventricular end diastolic pressure
How does gravity affect the pulmonary circulation?
In the upright position, the apices of the lungs are above the level of the heart, while the bases are at or below it. There is a relatively marked pressure gradient in the pulmonary arteries.
When standing, where is pulmonary blood flow the least?
What happens when pressure in the pulmonary artery increases/
Resistance falls even low because of recruitment of previously collapsed capillaries and distension of existing capillary segments.
What are some consequences of long standing pulmonary hypertension?
Cor pulmonale and right ventricular failure.
What is the physiologic response of the lungs to hypoxia?
Why is the response to hypoxia by the lungs significant?
It redirects blood from poorly ventilated regions to well ventilated areas.
What changes does chronic hypoxia cause in the pulmonary circulation?
1. Sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction
2. Increase in number of perivascular smooth muscle cells.
Increasaed interstitial collagen is a change seen in chronic hypoxia. TRUE/FALSE
How does inspiration affect venous return?
Increases it by increasing intrapleural pressure.