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31 Cards in this Set

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Through what reflex is the body able to quickly regulate the minute to minute arterial blood pressure?
Baroreceptor reflex
How is it mediated/
It is neurally mediated negative feedback system.
What are baroreceptors?
Stretch receptors
Where are baroreceptors located?
In the carotid sinuses by the bifurcation of the common carotids and in the aortic arch.
Baroreceptors respond to any change in stretch. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Aortic arch receptors; increases in blood pressure
What nerves do the baroreceptors utilize to regulate blood pressure?
Carotid sinus baroreceptors; glossopharyngeal nerve(CN 1X)
The aortic arch baroreceptors respond via the vagus nerve. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
What are the steps in the baroreceptor reflex?
decreased stretch on the walls due to decreased arterial pressure---- decreases the firing rate of the afferent limb of the reflex.
Rate determines the autonomic response coordinated by the vasomotor center to maintain blood pressure at normal.
What mediates the response of the vasomotor center?
decreased parasympathetic stimulation and increased sympathetic stimulation.
What autonomic responses does the vasomotor center utilize to maintain blood pressure?
INcreased HR
Increased contractility
Increased SV
Vasoconstriction of arterioles and veins
What happens during carotid massage? s increased stretch and leads to decreased HR
Massage increases pressure on carotid artery, which is interpreted as increased stretch and leads to decreased HR.
Where are the peripheral chemoreceptors located?
carotid and aortic bodies.
What do peripheral chemoreceptors respond to?
Decreased PO2
Decreased pH of blood
Increased PCO2
Where are the central chemoreceptors located?
Vasomotor center.
Do the central chemoreceptors respond directly to PO2?
NO.
What do central chemoreceptors respond to?
Changes in pH and PCO2 of brain interstitial fluid.
What is the Cushing reaction?
Response to cerebral ischemia where increased intracranial pressure causes hypertension(sympathetic) and bradycardia(parasympathetic)
What is the body's long term blood pressure regulation system?
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
How does the body regulate blood pressure?
By adjusting blood volume.
How is the Juxtaglomerular complex involved in the RAA system?
detects decreased renal perfusion in the afferent arteriole, causing them to release renin.
How is renin involved in the RAA system?
catalyzes the conversion of circulating angiotensinogen into angiotensin 1.
How is angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE) involved in the RAA system?
Converts angiotensin 1 into angiotensin 2.
Where is ACE located?
Lungs
What are the effects od angiotensin 2?
1. Stimulates synthesis and secretion of aldosterone, which increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion in the kidney.
2. Stimulates vasoconstriction of the arterioles, which increases TPR and MAP.
Vasopressin is the other name for ADH. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
ADH is secreted in the posterior pituitary. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What causes the release of ADH?
Atrial receptors detect decrease in blood volume or blood presure(hemorrhage)
What are the effects of ADH?
Increases TPR by activating V1 receptors in the arterioles causing them to vasoconstrict.
Increases water reabsorption by the renal distal tubule and collecting ducts with the activation of V2 receptors.
What causes the release of ANP?
Increased atrial pressure.
ANP is released in the atria. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What are the effects of ANP?
1. Dilation of areterioles and decreased TPR from relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.
2. Increased Na+ and water excretion by the kidney to decrease blood volume.
3. Inhibits renin secretion.