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14 Cards in this Set

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What event does the first heart sound(S1) correspond to?
Mitral and tricuspid valve closure.
What is a split S1?
When the mitral valve closes before the tricuspid valve.
What event does the second heart sound(S2) correspond to?
Aortic and pulmonic valve closure
What are the potentially pathological heart sounds?
S3 and S4
In what instances are the heart sounds not pathological?
S3=normal in children
S4=always pathological
What pathology are the abnormal heart sounds associated with?
S3=dilated congested heart failure
S4=hypertrophic ventricle
When would you hear the abnormal heart sounds?
S3: at the end of the rapid ventriclular filling phase
S4: high atrial pressure/stiff ventricle and occurs between S2 and S1
Describe the murmur of aortic stenosis.
Ejection click followed by a midsystolic crescendo decrescendo murmur at second right interspace and radiates to carotids and apex.
Describe the murmur of aortic regurgitation?
Blowing early diastolic murmur at the aorta and left sternal border, apical diastolic rumble(Austin flint murmur, and midsystolic flow murmur at the base.
Describe the murmur of mitral stenosis?
Opening snap followed by a delayed rumbling diastolic murmur at apex.
Describe the murmur of mitral regurgitation.
Holosystolic high pitched blowing apical murmur at the left sternal border.
Describe the murmur of mitral valve prolapse.
Late systolic murmur with midsystolic click.
describe the murmur of ventricular septal defect.
Holosystolic murmur over entire precordium and heard maximally at the 4th left interspace.
describe the murmur associated with patent ductus arteriosus>
Continuous machine like murmur that is loudest at second left interspace.